Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume8,Issue1

1. Inhibitory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves in Rat Active Cutaneus Anaphylaxis Reaction
Baroroh H N, Utami E D, Harwoko
Abstract
Psidium guajava is  a  plant that  grows  widely  in  some  areas  of  Indonesia which have been proven as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aims of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava (EEPG) leaves on active cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by ovalbumin. This study used wistar male rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 5). Each group was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) and Al(OH) on the days of 0 and 7, and finally were challenged by ovalbumin on the day of 14 to induce active cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cromolyn sodium was used as standard drug. EEPG with dose of 250mg/kgBW, 500mg/kgBW, and 750mg/kgBW were given orally at day 14. In order to determine the mast cells on the inflammation tissues, the specimens were stained with Toluidine blue. The results showed that EEPG leaves at the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg BW could inhibit the  pigmentation area of vascular permeability on rats skin, signicantly with controll group (p<0,05), but still lower than cromolyn sodium. Histopathologically, EEPG leaves had inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation process. It indicated that the EEPG leaves had inhibitory effect on active cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction.

Abstract Online: 29-November-2015

2. Acute Toxicity Non-Hexane Fraction of Ethanolic Extract of Ant-Plant (Myrmecodia tuberose (Jack) Bl.) Hypocotyls in Rats
Alif Firman Firdausy, Nurlaila, Ediati Sasmito
Abstract
Ant-plant (Myrmecodia tuberose (Jack) Bl.) is a medicinal plant originating from Papua which have broad therapeutic uses that potential to be developed as phytomedicine. The purpose of this research was to estimate acute-toxic potency of ant-plant by a modified OECD 423 method approach. This research is a part of phytomedicine preclinical test for ant-plant. Non-hexane fraction of 95% ethanolic extract of an-plant hypocotyls (NHF) were administered via oral, single and daily doses in female Wistar rats. Animals divided in 300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg BW doses groups. Every group used 6 animals and divided into 2 steps, except for 5000 mg/kg BW which was only 3 animals used in a step. There is no dose administered for control. Animals were observed 24 hours after dose administration of extract. Especially for 2000 mg/kg BW, observation was continued till 14 days. Result showed LD50 of NHF greater than 5000 mg/kg BW, thus the extract were included in category 5/unclassified according to GHS. Histopathology of animals sacrificed after 24 hours dose administration showed abnormalities in renal tubular (epithelial vacuolation), lungs (peribronkhiolitis and perivaskulitis), liver (hydropic degeneration) and stomach (gastritis). While animals after 14 days observation resulted focal inflammation occurred in the liver.

Abstract Online: 29-November-2015

3. Study of Immunomodulatory Effect of Seeds of Brassica nigra and Cuminum cyminum in Albino Rats
T.Nandini, D.Ramya Sree, Shaik JanbeeK Siva sai kiran, G Raveendra babu
Abstract
The aim of the Present investigation is to assess the immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Brassica nigra L. in combination with Cuminum cyminum against pyrogallol induced immunosuppression in rats. Control group received a dose of pyrogallol 100mg/kg i.p., once daily from day 1 to 7, while the normal group received only vehicle. In another set of experiment the immunomodulatory activity of Brassica nigra 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.,daily from day 1 to day 22 was screened in rats in whom immunosuppression was induced the pyrogallol. Besides the above treatments, the rats from all the groups received sheep red blood cells (SRBC) (0.5×109 cells/100g, i.p.) on day 7 and 13, as the antigenic material to sensitize them for immunological studies. The immunological parameters that are assessed are humoral immune response, cellular immune response, carbon clearance test and white blood cell count.  Invivo antioxidant studies were performed by assessing superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of high dose of Brassica nigra (500mg/kg p.o.) for 22 days significantly (p<0.001) prevented the influence of pyrogallol on primary and secondary humoral immune responses, increased the paw volume (index of cell-mediated immunity) when compared to control group. Administration of equal proportionate dose of Brassica nigra (250mg/kg, p.o.) and Cuminum cyminum (250mg/kg, p.o) for 22 days significantly (p<0.01) increased the paw volume, increased the phagocytic response, increased the WBC count when compared to control group. treatment  with  low  and  high  dose  of  Brassica  nigra  significantly  increased  the superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and significantly  (p<0.05) decreased  the  lipid  peroxidation respectively in a dose dependent manner when compared with control.

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

4. Fractionation and Characterization of Proteins in Lumbricus rubellus Powders
M L Edy Parwanto, Mahyunis, Hardy Senjaya, Hosea Jaya Edy, Syamsurizal
Abstract
In order to find drugs from natural materials, earthworm powders Lumbricus rubellus can be used as a source of protein which can be developed into various types of drugs.  The purpose of this study do fractionation and characterization of protein in  L  rubellus powders based on molecular weight. Protein in L rubellus powders extracted gradually to obtain a crude extract, precipitate and dialysate as final extract. Measurement of proteins levels in the crude extract, precipitate and dialysate is done by spectrophotometer, while electrophoresis was done to proteins characterization base on molecular weight. We conclude that 5 grams powder L rubellus in the dialysate fractions containing 2487 ug/mL  proteins that show four dominant types of proteins with a molecular weight of 12.2, 13.3, 14.6 and 29.2 kiloDalton (kDa).

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

5. Modulatory Effect of Fenugreek Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles on Lipofuscinogenesis in Pancreas of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice.
Walvekar M V, Pol S B, Deshmukh V M
Abstract
Many traditional treatments have been recommended in the alterative system of medicine for the diabetes mellitus. Current research is now directed towards finding naturally occurring antidiabetic properties from plant origin. In Indian system of medicine Trigonella foenum graecum is an important medicinal plant and its leaves and seeds have been used in various ailments and as a health tonic. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and its nanoparticles (FNPs) on body weight, pancreatic gland weight, lipid peroxidation and fluorescence product of the pancreas of alloxan induced diabetic mice. Adult albino male mice (Mus musculus L) were divided into four group’s viz. i. Control Group: male mice were given subcutaneous injection of 0.15M acetate buffer pH 5.4 for 15 days. ii. Diabetic Group- mice were given single subcutaneous injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight. iii. Diabetic → FSE: mice were given subcutaneous injection of FSE at a dose of 15mg/ kg body weight to diabetic mice for 15 days. iv. Diabetic → FNPs: mice were given subcutaneous injection of FNPs at a dose of 15mg/ kg body weight to diabetic mice for 15 days. Body weight and pancreatic gland weight was reduced in diabetic group but increased in fenugreek supplementary group. The end product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) and fluorescence product were increased in diabetic group and after fenugreek administration the level of both the parameters reduced significantly. The results suggest that an anti-lipid peroxidation activity of fenugreek seeds and its nanoparticles, nanoparticles treated group showed better results than fenugreek seed extract treated groups indicating that the fenugreek nanoparticles are best antidiabetic and antioxidant as compared fenugreek seed extract.

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

6. Basil Essential Oil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Activities on Streptococcus mutans Growth, Biofilm Formation and Degradation and its Stability in Micro-Emulsion Mouthwash Formula
Astuti P, Saifullah T N, Wulanjati M P, Yosephine A D, Ardianti D
Abstract
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on Streptococcus mutans growth, biofilm formation and degradation and examine its stability in micro-emulsion mouthwash formula. Antibacterial, antibiofilm and biodegradation activities of basil essential oil were conducted using microtiter broth dilution method. Commercially available “X” mouthwash was used as positive control. The percentage of inhibition or degradation was calculated based on optical density measurement. Micro-emulsion mouthwash of basil essential oil was tested on antibacterial activity. Stability testing was conducted using accelerated storage condition. In this study, basil essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans with IC90 of 0.23 %, biofilm formation inhibition with IC50 of 0.68%, and biofilm degradation by 32.15% at 1.00%. The antibacterial activity of basil essential oil within its micro-emulsion mouthwash formula was maintained at 100% after 3 months storage at room temperature and sustained at 99.62% at accelerated storage condition. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were geranial (43.74%) and neral (31.19%). This study has demonstrated that basil essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. The activity appears to be stabile after three month storage at accelerated storage conditions suggested that basil essential oil is potential to function as active ingredient in antibacterial and antibiofilm product formulation.

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

7.  Severity of Menopausal Symptoms and its Relationship with Quality of Life in Post Menopausal Women-A Community Based Study
B Jayabharathi, A Judie
Abstract
Background:  Menopause is the anchor point defined as 12 months of amenorrhea following the final menstrual period (FMP). Post menopause is the span of time dating from the final menstrual period and it is early within 5 years of FMP and the late when more than 5 years after FMP. The transition defined by perimenopause and menopause may be viewed as problematic period of menstrual, emotional and physiologic changes. Aim: This study tested the severity of menopausal symptoms and its relationship with quality of life in postmenopausal women.  Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted in selected areas in Kattankulathur Block, Chennai,Tamilnadu. After Initial screening, Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select the study participants. The total sample  size comprised of 130 post menopausal women. Assessments were made by five point rating scales for assessing the physical and psychological symptoms  of postmenopausal women which was based on Standardized Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and  WHO QOL BREF Scale for assessing their quality of life. Results:  Hot flushes (72%), sweating ( 71.5%) and lack of energy (63%) are the most prevalent symptoms experienced by  postmenopausal women. Majority of them 56(44%) had very poor quality of life and 59(46%) were very dissatisfied about their health status. The lower mean scores were found in physical, psychological, social and environment domain among postmenopausal women. There was fair negative correlation observed between quality of life with physical and psychological symptoms of postmenopausal women. Conclusion: The study concluded that, severity of menopausal symptoms negatively affected the quality of life of postmenopausal women.

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

8. Anti-cancer Activity of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) Flowers Against Human Liver Cancer
N Muruganantham, S Solomon, M M Senthamilselvi
Abstract
Cucumbers are scientifically known as Cucumis sativus and belong to the same botanical family as melons (including watermelon and cantaloupe) and squashes (including summer squash, winter squash, zucchini and pumpkin). Commercial production of cucumbers is usually divided into two types. “Slicing cucumbers” are produced for fresh consumption. “Pickling cucumbers” are produced for eventual processing into pickles. Slicing cucumbers are usually larger and have thicker skins, while pickling cucumbers are usually smaller and have thinner skins. Cucumbers have not received as much press as other vegetables in terms of health benefits, but this widely cultivated food provides us with a unique combination of nutrients. At the top of the phytonutrient list for cucumbers are its cucurbitacins, lignans, and flavonoids. This Present study explains a very superior anticancer action against liver cancer. The compound isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Cucumis sativus flowers was tested for its anti cancer activity against liver cancer HePG2 cell line by MTT assay. The CTC50 value of sample was 103.7µg/ml against liver cancer HePG2 cell lines. Significant results were observed thereby proving the use of this plant in the traditional system of medicine.

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

9. Stem Cells Reduced Neuroinflammatory Response During the Process of Stroke
Mora Lee S, Castro García P, Manzo Ríos M I
Abstract
The stroke is among the main diseases that cause death behind cardiac diseases and cancer, in industrialized countries, causing 10% approximately of total deaths. One of the most incidence of strokes are ischemic type, while hemorrhagic type is decreased apparition. This blood flow interruption entails a lessening of oxygen input and nutrients that may cause irreversible neuronal damages. According as the search for new therapeutic approaches is increasing, nowadays there are multiple researchers using cell therapy for the stroke using various stem cells types. Thus also, the treatment of stroke is focused on several objectives and will be depending on the pathophysiologic state in which the disease is found.  The most important are focused on neuroprotection after a stroke. Some types of stem cells such as the NSC, BMSC and ADSC have demonstrated therapeutic potential for stroke. These mechanisms include coronary thrombosis reduction, increased neurogenesis, inflammation reduction, cell differentiation, secretion of growth factors, cytokines and hormones, in addition to modulation of the immune response after transplantation, which makes them a potential therapy for neuroinflammation of the stroke.

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

10. Nano-encapsulated Form of Citrus medica for Osteoporosis Treatment in Animal Model
Wagdy K. B Khalil, Gehan T El-Bassyouni, Hoda F Booles
Abstract
Although Rosiglitazone (R) is recommended for diabetes therapy, however, it increases the incidence of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of Citrus medica leaves extract nanoparticles (CM-NPs) against osteoporosis prompted by Rosiglitazone (R). In addition, pharmaceutical impacts of R with CM-NPs in treating diabetic-induced male rats were premeditated. Swiss albino rats (n= 60) were equally allocated in six groups including control (C), diabetes mellitus (DM), DM+R, DM+R+CM50-NPs, DM+R+CM75-NPs and DM+R+CM100-NPs. Serum glucose, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and β2-microglobulin concentrations were appraised. Bone mineral density (BMD) of each right femur was restrained. The results revealed that administration of R to DM-rats induced significant diminution in serum OPG level and increase in serum RANKL and β2-microglobulin levels which were improved in DM-R-CM-NPs rats. A significant decline in total BMD was found in DM+R treated rats which was repressed in DM+R-CM-NP rats. DM-rats treated with R showed significantly low gene expression of OC, COL genes and higher level of ACP5 mRNA compared to control rats. However, the expression values due to R treatment were amended by CM-NPs administration. In addition, DM-rats treated with R showed significantly high incidence of MnPCEs and 8-OHdG/2-dG ratio which were inhibited by the administration of CM-NPs. Conclusion: The combination therapy of R and Citrus medica nanoparticles (CM-NPs) reduced the risk of osteoporosis in animal model.

Abstract Online: 19-December-2015

11. Enhanced K-means Clustering Approach for Health Care Analysis Using Clinical Documents
Effat Naaz, Divya Sharma, D Sirisha, Venkatesan M
Abstract
Clinical documents contain enormous amount of medical information. These documents are gold mine of information for medical treatment of various diseases and their symptoms along with their prescribed medications. Data mining techniques when applied on this clinical data is vital source to improve the current healthcare system by making it more efficient. We define an approach to build a system that firstly pre-processes the clinical documents. Pre-processing of textual data will amplify the performance of Clustering. Then we apply the K-means clustering on the pre-processed notes. Extraction of symptoms and medication names on the clustered data results in improved medication recommendation. Our experiments show that K-means clustering is a favored approach for clustering of clinical documents.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

12. Comparision on Lipid Profile Level and Prevalence of Hypertension Among Rural and Urban Post-Menopausal Women
Silambuselvi K, Murugu Valavan V
Abstract
Introduction:.Many Study shows that approximately one in two women develops Coronary heart disease  and one in three dies from it. The difference between modern lifestyle in urban areas and the traditional way of life in rural areas affect the population’s health. As a result of several factors, including a lower level of estrogen, postmenopausal women are at increased risk for a number of health conditions, such as osteoporosis and heart disease.. The U. S. Preventive Services Task Force. (USPSTF) strongly recommends routinely screening women 45 years and older for lipid disorders and treating abnormal lipid levels in persons who are at increased risk of Coronary heart disease`Aim: To compare lipid profile level and  prevalence of hypertension  among   rural and    urban post  menopausal  women. Setting and Participants: In this  comparative study 500 postmenopausal women in the age group of 45-60 years were  randomly selected from rural and urban area(250 in each group) in Tamil Nadu,India.. Rural  subjects  were  selected  from  Somangalam  region  which  is located  in Kancheepuram district. Urban subjects were selected from Perambur  region, Chennai.  Subjects were personally interviewed regarding the intake of  medicines for hypertension  and blood pressure was also  measured to know about the  prevalence of  hypertension . Blood samples were collected and tested  in the laboratory for lipid profile levels using standardized  methods. Result: By  applying statistical technique (ANOVA) on  lipid profile values, it was found that serum triglycerides ,low density lipoprotein  and total cholesterol were significantly higher in urban subjects than the rural  subjects. The High density lipoprotein lipid level was significantly higher in rural than urban subjects. Percentage of  prevalence of hypertension was also comparatively  higher in urban subjects . Conclusion:The present study concluded that  except HDL values ,  the mean Lipid profile level was comparatively higher above the normal levels among urban subjects.The  prevalence of  hypertension  was comparatively more  in  urban  postmenopausal women than the  rural subjects.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

13. Optical Coherence Tomography – An Update
Tejaswi Bollina, Sindhu Ramesh
Abstract
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non invasive, real time imaging technology capable of producing high-resolution cross-sectional images of the internal architecture of materials and tissues (1 – 2 mm in depth). OCT gives quantitative and qualitative information of both hard and soft tissue. The reviewed studies include images of normal and abnormal dental hard tissue structures and also teeth after several treatment methods. These are performed in order to assess the material defects and micro leakage at the tooth filling interface, as well as to evaluate the quality of bracket bonding on dental hard tissue. OCT can also be used for evaluation of prosthetic restorations and micro leakage at prosthetic interfaces, for imaging root canals and root dentin and the presence or absence of apical micro leakage and to detect osteointegration of dental implants. This imaging method has emerged as one of the forefront imaging modality because of the wide variety of information and the three dimensional data it can provide. This review focuses on the basic sciences of OCT with its potential dental applications.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

14. A Centroid-based Clustering Approach to Analyze Examinations for Diabetic Patients
Venkatesan M, Doshi Aditya Ashvin, Sanket Bhambure, Roney Thomas
Abstract
Health care sector is exploding with data from various streams such as patient history, insurance details, examination histories, drug prescription and many more. This data has immense potential to serve the health care sector in various ways. But due to the huge outbreak, the sector demands powerful and innovative mining tools for extracting useful information from these data. In this paper we propose a novel and explorative approach for data mining the similarities of examinations and medical conditions prevailing among diabetic patients which are in different age groups. This paper, we use a centroid-based clustering algorithm for grouping the data obtained and a decision tree classifier for classification. The decision tree classifier is chosen because by looking at the tree structure all persons who uses the model can easily understand what the model means. For studying different data attributes, the clustering algorithm has been taken in multi-level fashion.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

15. A Comparison of Hospital Stressors and their Related Factors: From the Perspective of the Cardiac and Internal Wards’ Patients
Fatemeh Kiani, Mozhgan Rahnama, Ehsan Dadkani, Abbas Balouchi, Khaled Fazeli
Abstract
Background: Stress is one of the human being’s predicaments in the current century which has extended its effects on various aspects of peoples’ lives. These unpleasant effects have indeed afflicted the patients even more and can aggravate their health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the stressors inherent in the cardiac ward and internal ward of hospitals. Methods and materials: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Sistaan-va-Baluchestaan province, Zahedaan city in 2013 and all of the patients hospitalized in the cardiac and internal wards of the Khaatam Hospital and Imam Ali Hospital were taken as the population. Available sampling was used to extract a sample of 368 patients. Data was gathered by handing out a questionnaire produced by the researcher and the descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and ANOVA tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Analyses indicate that the mean of stressors in the internal and cardiac wards are 60.36 and 44.90 respectively which are statistically significant. The mean of stressors’ scores has a significant relationship with background factors such as level of education, hospitalization history, marital status, religion, and sex but did not render any significant relationship with other variables. Conclusion: Since stress may lead to the deterioration of the patients’ illness it is expected that the authorities detect the least stressors in hospitals and take action to moderate them. In this regard non-specialist units are in greater need for attention.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

16. In-vitro Effects of Some Antibiotic Drugs on Saliva Thiocyanate and Oxidation Protein Products Levels on Newborn at Risk of Sepsis
Ari Yunanto, Iskandar, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
In this present study, we try to investigate the effect of three antibiotics treatment to protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and thiocyanate (SCN) level in newborn at risk of sepsis. This present study was performed at February-June 2015. Saliva samples were taken from 20 newborns (5 from normal newborn and 15 from infants were a risk of sepsis) treated in Ulin General Hospital, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Saliva samples then divided into four groups with; Control group which contains saliva only; T1 group which contains saliva+meropenem; T2 group which contains saliva+amikacin; and T3 group which contains saliva+diazole. Solutions then incubated at 37oC for 1 hours and then was prepared for PC, AOPPs, and SCN content analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatments could decrease the PC and AOPPs, and increase the SCN levels. From this results, it can be concluded that all antibiotics treatment induced the production of ROS and SCN that will be used to kill bacteria. From this results also, can be concluded that antibiotics could reduce the oxidative stress in sepsis condition and activated MPO to produced HOSCN that known plays an important role to kill the bacteria.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

17. Role of CXCL5 and PDCD-4 as Prognostic Biomarkers in Patients with Colorectal Cancer
Mohamed D E, Abdel Maksoud, Mie Afify, Nervana Samy, Tamer E Mosa, Mostafa M Abo-Zeid
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess serum CXCL5 and PDCD-4 levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) to evaluate their value as prognostic markers and their correlation with clinicopathologic features. The study was conducted on 103 colorectal cancer patients divided into two groups according to stage of disease (early [groupI] and late [group II]) beside 50 healthy controls. The levels of CXCL5 and PDCD-4 were measured in sera of all patients before and after treatment and healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (ELISA). Our results showed that serum CXCL5 was significantly elevated in cancer patients in comparison to controls and this increase decreased after treatment, the elevation correlated positively with stage and progression of disease. Serum PDCD-4 was significantly elevated in early stage group [group I] in comparison to controls while in late stage group [group II] its level was significantly low in comparison to controls and group I. It correlated negatively with stage and progression of disease. In conclusion; Serum CXCL5 level was increased in CRC patients and it correlated positively with progression of disease so it could serve as a predictive marker for CRC patient prognosis while PDCD-4 decreased with progression of tumor and correlated negatively with stage, so it can be used as prognostic marker. Also, elevation of PDCD-4 expression is a promising strategy for cancer therapeutics. Since PDCD-4 expression is frequently downregulated in cancer cells, the compounds to suppress these actions will be valuable agents for cancer therapeutics.

Abstract Online: 22-December-2015

18. Health-related Quality of Life Among Smokers in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia
Susi Ari Kristina, Dwi Endarti, Anna Wahyuni Widayanti, Mentari Widiastuti
Abstract
Background: Smoking is considered as the leading cause of many diseases and has detrimental effects on health. However, little is known about impairment of health related quality of life associated with smoking and level of nicotine dependence in Indonesian population. Methods. Data obtained from questionnaire survey among Yogyakarta city and Sleman district population. A number of 561 male respondents was selected by convenience sampling. WHO-QoL BREF consisted of 26 questions with 4 dimensions was delivered by trained interviewer. Nicotine dependence was measured using Fagerstorm scale consisted of 6 items. Age, education level, job status, physical activity was also being asked to respondents. Data was analyzed descriptively and association between smoking status, nicotine dependence level, and sociodemographic factors with health-related quality of life was investigated. Results. Overall, an estimated 58.1% of adults aged >15 years were current smokers and 41.9% were non-smokers. Current smokers had significantly poorer HRQoL than those who never smoked. Additionally, those who had high nicotine dependence were had more impaired HRQoL compared to low and moderate level of nicotine dependence. Respondents with low education, not employed, and physically inactive reported poorer HRQoL than their counterparts. Conclusions. There are relationships between smoking and HRQoL impairment. Lower HRQoL also reported among those who had high nicotine dependence, and others sociodemograhic factor. Awareness among health professionals about smoking as health risk behavior needed to be raised and smoking cessation interventions should be provided as potential efforts of tobacco control.

Abstract Online: 26-December-2015

19. Chemical Constituents of Cycas curanii (J.Schust.) K.D.Hill
Vincent Antonio S Ng, Esperanza Maribel Agoo, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y. Ragasa
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of Cycas curanii led to the isolation of squalene (1), lutein (2), chlorophyll a (3), phytol (4), long chain 1-alkene (5), and triacylglycerols (6)  from the leaflets; 1, 6, and β-sitosteryl fatty acid ester (7) from the sarcotesta;  6 and β-sitosterol (8) from the bark; 7 and a mixture of 8 and stigmasterol (9) from the lamina; 6 and 8 from the endotesta; 6, β-sitosterone (10), a mixture of 7 and phytyl fatty acid ester (11), and a mixture of 8 and 9 from the petiole; 6 and 8 from the roots; and 8 from the sclerotesta.  The structures of 111 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

20. Role of T-Type Amino Acid Transporter TAT1 (S1C 16a 10) in Aromatic Amino Acid Homeostasis
Prabhavathi K, Tamarai Selvi K, Hemamalini R V, Saravanan A
Abstract
It is certain that transporters like Na+ K+ ATPase, H+ K+ ATPase, SGLT, and GLUT with respect to food absorption like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and electrolytes is well known. Information on transporters for amino acid absorption is meagre. Some other transport channels are studied because their mutation and dysfunction may lead to certain diseases, example cystic fibrosis where there is a mutation in the CFTR chloride channels. The reason for some transporters being studied extensively is because they are expressed abundantly in the tissues and easily accessible to experimentation. However there are very few studies that carried out in certain transporters though it is essential for the success and survival of the organism because of their low level expression in mixed cell population and probably located on the membrane that is difficult to work. One among them is system T. The importance of such a transporter system is often under investigated and overlooked due to difficulty in performing the experiments.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

21. Studies on Goitrogenic/ Antithyroidal Potentiality of Thiocyanate, Catechin and After Concomitant Exposure of Thiocyanate-Catechin
Chiranjit Mondal, Sabyasachi Sinha, Arijit Chakraborty, Amar K Chandra
Abstract
In adequate iodine intake including and a number of environmental agents can affect thyroid gland functions in man and animals. Thiocyanate and catechin that arise for the consumption of cyanogenic and flavonoids containing foods respectively, affect thyroid hormone synthesis but the data comparing the goitrogenic/ antithyroid  potentiality of thiocyanate and catechin when act individually or synergistically on thyroid function found scanty. Experimental animals were divided into groups and orally administered either thiocyanate or catechin or both in combination for 30 days followed by analysis of thyroid gland weight, histology, thyroid peroxidase, sodium potassium ATPase, 5’-deiodinase- I activities, thyroid hormone profiles, urinary iodine and urinary thiocyanate of each group of animals. Enlarged thyroid showing hypertrophic and hyperplastic changes, decreased thyroid peroxidase, sodium potassium ATPase, 5’-deiodinase- I activities activities and thyroid hormone profiles were observed in the treated groups. Overall results reveal that goitrogenic/ antithyroid potentiality found highest after concomitant exposure of thiocyanate and catechin followed by thiocyanate and least after catechin.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015

22. Clinical Significance of NGAL, MMP-9, and VEGF in Colorectal Cancer Patients
Menha Swellam, Mohamed D E Abdelmaksoud, Amgad K hassan
Abstract
Objectives. We aimed to investigate the levels of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients especially among pre and post-treated individuals. Materials and methods. A total of 162 CRC patients were enrolled and they were divided according to their clinical stage into early CRC stage (stage I, II, and III, n=90) and advanced stage (stage IV, n=72). A group of healthy individuals (n=57) were also included as controls. Blood samples were collected from them before and after they received treatments as well as from the control group where NGAL, MMP-9, VEGF, CEA and CA19-9 were asses in their sera using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Serum levels of NGAL, MMP-9, their ratio (NGAL/MMP-9) and VEGF were significantly higher in CRC patients as compared with control individuals. By using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for detection of the diagnostic efficacy, NGAL and MMP-9 were superior to other markers and routine tumor markers (CEA and CA19-9) in detection of CRC patients. Levels of investigated biomarkers in both early and advanced post-treated CRC were significantly decreased than in pretreated patients as compared to CEA and CA19-9 as they did not report significance decrease. Conclusion. Our findings suggest the usefulness of serum NGAL, MMP-9, VEGF in diagnosis of CRC patients and their superiority over CEA and CA19-9 as adjuvant biomarker for treated patients.

Abstract Online: 31-December-2015