1. Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Revealing the Role of Water Molecules on Conformational Change of Human Serum Albumin Retnaningtyas Ekowati, Sumitro S B, Soeatmadji D W, Widjayanto E
Water has an important role in the stability of the structure of the albumin protein. Dehydration condition will affect the conformational changes of albumin protein. This study aims to know the role of water in affecting albumin protein conformational changes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. 3D sample of human serum albumin (1AO6) was obtained from the Protein Data Bank and prepared with VEGAZZ program v.3.08. Simulation process was performed with Gromacs v.4.5.1. The simulation process used the force field GROMOS 43a1 for 1000 ps. The results showed that the dehydration by 30% and 40% can make the dynamics of the protein albumin more static and the dynamic pattern is much different compared to normal conditions. Therefore it can be concluded that the decrease in the amount of water can affect the dynamics of the albumin protein effecting the blood viscosity change.
2. A Review on Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives Neha Singh, Ritu Ranjana, Manju Kumari, Birendra kumar
The present paper, put forth a brief account on biological activities of hydrazone derivatives. Hydrazones are present in many of the bioactive heterocyclic compounds that are of very important use because of their various biological and clinical applications. The synthesis and the importance of hydrazides were studied by many researchers shows various biological, medical and industrial activities. Hydrazones have been demonstrated to possess, among other, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, anticancer, antimalarial, vasodilator activity, etc. The ease of preparation, increased hydrolytic stability relative to imines, and tendency toward crystallinity are all desirable characteristics of hydrazones. Due to these positive traits, hydrazones have been under study for a long time.
3. The Effect of Calotropis gigantea Leaves Extract on Fibrosarcoma Growth and Caspase 3 Expression. Roihatul Muti’ah, Tias Pramesti Griana, Qonitah Nurul Ula, Yanu Andhyarto
The effect of Calotropis gigantea (CG) leaves extract on fibrosarcoma growth and Caspase 3 expression have been evaluated. Mile mice were divided into 5 groups with 7 mice per group, (1) Negative control (CMC-Na 0.5%), (2) Positive control (Methotrexate 2,5 mg/kgBW), (3) 50 mg/Kg BW of CG, (4) 100 mg/Kg BW of CG, (5) 150 mg/Kg BW of CG. Mice body weights were observed before induced by cancer agent. Then, all mice were injected by 0.1 mL DMBA 25 μg/0.1 mL acetone by subcutaneous injection two times a week for 6 weeks. After treatment, all mice were sacrificed by euthanasia method based on Guideline for the Euthanasia of Animals. Then, mice nodules were taken and washed with PBS. Nodules were weighted and kept in the formaldehyde solution. Then immunohistochemical caspase-3 specimens were made. C. gigantea leaves extract at a dose of 100 and 150 mg/Kg BW were able to inhibit the growth of fibrosarcoma in experimental animals induced DMBA. This extract also improved the apoptotic index of cell, respectively for 20.9 %; 21.5 % and 24.6 %, and increased the caspase-3 expression significantly. Based on those data, C. gigantea leaves ethanol extract was potential to develop as anticancer phytopharmaca agent.
4. Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Postnatal Mothers Who Under Went Emergency Lower Segmental Caesearean Section, Government Hospital, Tambaram Latha K
Child birth is viewed as a life transition that can bring a sense of accomplishment. However, for some women, birth is experienced as a traumatic event with a minority experiencing post traumatic stress especially in emergency caesarean section. The stress that results from traumatic events precipitates a spectrum of psycho-emotional and physio-pathological outcomes. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that results from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events. To assess the post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among postnatal mothers, a survey approach, non experimental descriptive design on 60 postnatal mothers who underwent emergency lower segment caesarean section selected by simple random sampling technique was conducted. Traumtic event scale (TES), a standardized tool developed by wijma et al., was used to assess the PTSD symptoms. Subjects were assessed for i) child birth experience by a 4 point likert scale (Criterion A of the tool), ii) level of PTSD symptoms (Criterion B,C,D), iii) duration of the PTSD symptoms (criterion E), iv) severity of PTSD symptoms (Criterion F). Results showed that 48 (68.3%) out of 60 postnatal mothers had PTSD symptoms. 29 (48.3%) of the postnatal mothers had poor child birth experience and mild post traumatic stress disorder symptoms, 51(85%) mothers had been experiencing the PTSD symptoms. Child birth experience was associated with the demographic variables age at (X2 = 11.314, p=0.02), occupation at (X2 = 12.858, p=0.045) of the postnatal mothers. Level of PTSD symptoms was associated with the demographic variable occupation at (X2 = 10.868, p=0.012) of the post natal mother. Study concludes that screening for PTSD symptoms should be a routine surveillance tool for all post natal mothers and effective interventions to prevent the illness should be strongly targeted.
Xanthium strumarium L. is commonly known as burweed plant commonly found as a weed, is widely distributed in North America, Brazil, China, Malaysia and hotter parts of India. The present study deals with the evaluation of membrane stabilizing activity of Xanthium strumarium Linn extracts. Among ancient civilizations, India has been known to be rich repository of medicinal plants. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. The study such as ethno medicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. The extracts were prepared with different selected solvents for the plant to adjudge the major active principles in the solvent that have value in rational drug design. The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals of each extracts was analysed. The results of this study showed that methanol was the richest extract for phytoconstituents and it showed maximum membrane stabilizing activity as compare to other tested extracts. These findings suggested that methanol extract of leaf of Xanthium strumarium L. has potent membrane stabilizing ability which could be the reason for its use in inflammation related diseases.
6. Preparation and Evaluation of Cefixime Nanoparticles Prepared Using Fenugreek Seed Mucilage and Chitosan as Natural Polymers Shanmuganathan Seetharaman, Harika Balya, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy
Objectives: The present investigation was attempted to develop a natural polymer based cefixime nanoparticles using Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seed mucilage and chitosan as drug carrier to facilitate controlled drug release at the target site. Methods: The Cefixime nanoparticles were prepared by the modified coacervation method. The prepared drug nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release studies and also in-vitro antimicrobial efficiency studies for the selected ideal batch. Results: The prepared drug nanoparticles was found to be the average mean particle size in range from 133.8±8.5 to 446.3.2±20.3nm and zeta potential of greater than +30 mV or less than -30 mV indicate the better physical stability. The surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was found to be spherical with smooth surface and entrapment efficiency was found to be 70.4±1.2 to 83.4±2.0. The in-vitro drug release showed a biphasic pattern with initial burst release followed by the sustained release of the drug up to 24h. The MIC50 values of pure drug and prepared nanoparticles for Salmonella Typhi isolates was found to be 250 µg/ml and 125 µg/ml respectively. The disc agar diffusion test revealed that pure drug yielded 9mm clear zone surrounding the disc, whereas the prepared formulation discs produced 12mm clear zone at 125 µg/ml. Conclusions: The developed natural polymer based cefixime nanoparticles facilitate the controlled drug release profile and better zone of inhibition with minimum concentration thereby improving the patient compliance followed by declining the limitations associated with antibiotics.
7. Study on Incidence of Leptospirosis by Serodiagnosis in Rural population in the District of Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. Shanthi Banukumar, Kannan I, Premavathi R K, Shantha S
Background and Objectives: Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease caused by occupational or recreational contact with contaminated fluids. The aim of the present study is to know the incidence of the disease and to know the seroprevalence in the district of Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu, India .This helps to maintain adequate epidemiological data which indirectly favors the preventive and control measures to be carried out at State level and National level. Materials and Methods: The patients who attended our medicine outpatient department from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014 are screened for evidence of signs and symptoms of leptospirosis . A detailed history relevant to leptospirosis was elicited. Blood and serum of patients with history of fever more than a week was subjected to darkfield microscopy (DFM) and Dridot – Panbio respectively. 477 blood samples were analysed by (DFM), IgM ELISA and subjected to microscopic agglutination test to our referral lab. Sera having MAT titre more than 1:80 to any serovar with signs and symptoms of leptospirosis were considered to have leptospiral infection and were defined as seropositive cases. Result: From 477 samples 105 serum samples were seropositive and the incidence is 22.1%. A high incidence of 40.91 % in male between 21- 30 years and 38.46% in female between 11-20 years are reported. It also shows seasonal variations, more common in months of September, October and November.
8. Impact of OxidativeStresson Autism Spectrum Disorder Behaviors in Children with Autism Nagwa A Meguid, Safinaz N Azab, Amal S Saber, Heba A Mostafa, Mona A. El-Bana, Adel Hashish, Heba S Hashem
Autism is complexes behaviorally known as neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant deterioration in social interaction, mental abilities and communicative abilities. It is deemed a multi-causes disorder that is affected by genetic, immunological and environmental factors and inclusive oxidative stress. Aim of such study was to estimate level of antioxidant enzyme coenzyme Q10 and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in children with Autism and correlate these results with their language and behavior pattern. The study included 30 Egyptian children with autism and 30 normal children as control group. Their ages ranged between 3 to 6 years. Diagnosis was done using DSM-V and ADI-R. Cases were classified into high and low functioning autism using CARS. We compared plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 and MDA in children with autism and controls. Our results showed significant increased MDA and decreased coenzyme Q10 in autistic children compared to controls. On the other hand, Increased MDA and decreased coenzyme Q10 were not related to severity of autistic features and language abilities among autistic children group. Regarding language abilities of autistic children, there was positive correlation between IQ and total language age and negative correlation between CARS and total language age.
9. Synthesis of Ferulic Acid and Its Non Covalent Inclusion with Hydroxypropyl-b-Cyclodextrin Juni Ekowati, Rahman S D, Isadiartuti D, Widyowati R, Budiati T
Ferulic acid (FA) is a highly effective compound with many activities, but it is poorly suited for pharmaceutics application because of its low physicochemical properties. In the present study we synthesized FA through microwave assisted Knoevenagel condensation using malonic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, in the present of organic base as catalyst. The optimization of the synthesis method was done by comparing the base catalyst; that are pyridine, triethyl amine and morpholine. The structure of FA was determined through UV, FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. Improvement the physicochemical properties of FA was carried out through the establishment of the non covalent inclusion of FA with hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HP-b-CD) by the kneading method. Its physicochemical characterizations were performed by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic methods, ROESY experiment, differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and dissolution rate. Microwave irradiation that assisted synthesis of FA using morpholine as catalyst produced the highest yield compared to other catalysts. All of the characteristic data showed that non-covalent inclusion of FA/HP-b-CD has been formed. The dissolution rate of inclusion complex of FA/HP-b-CD was increasing significantly compared with FA.
10. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effects of Volatile Oils used in a Polyherbal Formulation
Joydeep Mazumder, Devender Pathak, Rachna Kumria
It was observed that each essential oil is having antimicrobial activity. But when combination was used, the antimicrobial property increased significantly. In higher concentrations Cardamom and Coriander oils are having more bactericidal properties than other oils where as in small concentrations all of the oils are having the same properties that was observed on MIC test. It was proved from the experiments that combination with synthetic standard drug like ciprofloxacin increased synergistic activity as compared to single dose of ciprofloxacin or streptomycin. On the other hand, the blend of oils show similar strength like the synthetic drug which has shown a similar zone of inhibition like synthetic drug, when used as standard. Hence the blend of essential oils can replace the use of synthetic drugs and can be proposed as an effective candidate to the patients undergoing multi dose therapy at regular intervals. In an alternative way it can be used with synthetic drug to those patients who are suffering from drug resistance.