1. Interaction Between Sp1 and G-6a Agt Gene for Revealing the Effect of Polimorphism in Hypertension Aprilia D S, Widodo, Rohman M S, Huswo D, Lukitasari M
Several experiments have identified polymorphism in the proximal of angiotensinogen (AGT). G-6A is one of polymorphism of AGT that involved hypertensive risk. This polymorphism increased AGT plasma level that may caused by increased transcription activity. This polymorphism located in proximal promoter that may regulate the gene. This polymorphism may regulated by Sp1 that influenced by polymorphism that affect angiotensinogen expression. However, the mechanism of interaction Sp1 and G-6A and its influence for expression is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the interaction between polymorphism G-6A and Sp1 (Specificity protein 1). We used molecular docking for predicting interaction and molecular dynamic for predicting the stability the interaction. We reported that the Sp1-DNA allele A complex was more stable than allele G complex. The conformation during simulation showed that the Sp1-DNA allele A complex was more stable than allele G complex. The Sp1-DNA allele A complex have more bond than allele G complex. The bond consist of hydrogen contact and hydrophobic contact that may contribute to form stable interaction in Sp1-DNA allele A complex. This study suggested that the G to A alteration at the position -6 leads to increased AGT promoter activity, that may increased risk in causing hypertension.
2. Demineralization of the Tooth by Peat Swamp Water Firda Amelia, Andre Sahbana, Nurdiana Dewi, Eko Suhartono
In this present study, we try to demonstrate the effect of peat swamp water to several mineral content, such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and fluor (F) in a tooth. Tooth samples were taken from 25 human maxilary premolar 1 free of caries and defects. All the tooth samples were extracted in Dental Faculty, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Water sample is taken from peat swamp area in Anjir Pasar village with pH value around 3.5. Tooth samples then divided into five groups with; C served as control; T1 which submerge the tooth for 24 hours; T2 which submerge the tooth for 48 hours; T3 which submerge the tooth for 72 hours; and T4 which submerge the tooth for 96 hours. After treatment, each sample were cleaned and crushed with mortar till homogenous and undergo to Mg, Fe, Mn, and F content analysis. Overall, the tooth submersion in peat swamp water decreased the Mn, Fe, Mg, and F content in the tooth. The results of this present study indicated that exposure to peat swamp water could caused the demineralization of the tooth.
3. Comparison of Electrolyte Disturbance of Using Intravenous Aminophylline Versus Nebulization Salbutamol for Exacerbation Asthma in Surabaya, Indonesia Amelia Lorensia, Zullies Ikawati, Tri Murti Andayani, Daniel Maranatha, Mariana Wahjudi
Background: Uncontrolled asthma symptoms will exacerbate asthma. Aminofilin is now rarely used as asthma medication abroad because it shows major side effects, unlike in Indonesia, which is still widely used with relatively rare side effects events. Aminophylline have relatively more affordable price compared to salbutamol, the first-line option in the management of asthma exacerbations requirements. Both of these drugs have a risk of causing electrolyte disturbances, which could endanger the patients. Considering the individual drug side effects, so it important to study the safety of the medicine to ascertain whether there are differences in the incidence of electrolyte disturbances by both drugs. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine differences in the incidence of electrolyte disturbances in patients with asthma exacerbations prescribed with aminophylline and salbutamol at a hospital in Surabaya. Method: This study design is a cross-sectional study of inpatient adult asthma exacerbations in emergency room (ER), using two groups, namely the group receiving intravenous aminophylline therapy (n = 22), and the group receiving nebulized salbutamol therapy (n = 21). Result: There is no significant difference between in intravenous aminophylline anda nebulized salbutamol group. And there is no significant difference in sodium (p>0,866) and potassium (p>0,470) level in blood as a respon to the asthma exacerbations treatment by intravenous aminophylline compared to nebulized salbutamol. Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of electrolyte disturbances in both drugs, but close monitoring is still needed to prevent any side effects incident.
4. 5-Indanyl Methacrylate monomer: Synthesis, Characterization and Copolymerization with Methyl Methacrylate and its Thermal properties. G SenthilNathan, I Mohammed Bilal, K Vetrivel, I Pugazhenthi, K Anver Basha
A monomer of 5-indanyl Methacrylate (5-IMA), has been synthesized from the precursor viz., 5-indanol and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Techniques 1H-NMR and13C-NMR.Copolymerization of 5-IMA with Methylmethacrylate (MMA) is carried out in benzene by free radical Solution polymerization at 70°C using BenzoylPeroxide as initiator. 5-IMA–co-MMA Copolymers are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Techniques (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Analysis of the thermal properties of the Copolymer by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)and Differencial Scanning Calorimetry Analysis(DSC) are also reported.
5. In Vitro Evaluation of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Rini Hendriani, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, KusnandarAnggadiredja, Sukrasno
The objective of this study was to investigate natural herbals that can be developed to help treat gout. Gout is a painful joint inflammatory disease caused by a buildup of uric acid in the joint tissues whose production is catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. The study began with the screening of several plants which are used empirically to treat gout in Indonesia. The screened plant parts were Mimosa pudica Linn. herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus Benth leaves, Sonchus arvensis L. leaves, Andrographis paniculata (Burn.f.) Nees leaves, Centella asiatica (L) Urban herbs, Catharanthus roseus leaves, Sida rhombifolia L. stems, Physalis peruviana leaves, Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers stems, Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis. herbs, Annona muricata L. leaves and Imperata cyllindrica stems. Activity tests were conducted in vitro by measuring the activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidase using UV spectrophotometry. Results showed the ethanol extracts S. rhombifolia stems showed the highest inhibition on xanthine oxidase activity with IC50 of 21.43 µg/mL, followed by S. Arvensis leaves extract with IC50 of 23.64 µg/mL. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential and IC50 values of the other extracts are also reported. Results of the present study suggest the potential use of S. rhombifolia and S. Arvensis extracts in the therapy of hyperucemia and gout.
6. Association Between Body Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density Among Rural and Urban Post Menopausal Women Silambuselvi K, Murugu Valavan V
Introduction:Osteoporosis is a growing health problem recognized in both developed and developing countries . The increasing prevalence of osteoporosis will lead to increased socioeconomic burdens because of the high cost of treatment). Weight and, body mass index (BMI) have been recognized as good predictors among the anthropometric parameters, for the evaluation of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture risk. Several retrospective and prospective studies also showed relatively consistent association between anthropometric characteristics and bone mass and fractures (Adami S et al 2004.,)1 Aim: To study the association between body mass index and bone mineral density among rural and urban post menopausal women. Setting and Participants: In this comparative study 500 postmenopausal women in the age group of 45-60 years were randomly selected from rural and urban area (250 in each group) of Tamil Nadu, India. Rural subjects were selected from Somangalam region which is located in Kancheepuram district. Urban subjects were selected from Perambur region, Chennai. The height and weight of all the subjects were recorded and BMI was calculated. BMD was measured in calcaneus (heel bone) using Furuno’s CM-200 light ultrasound bone densitometer. Results: The correlations between the variables were calculated by Pearson correlation test. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD among urban samples whereas negative correlation was observed between BMI and BMD among rural samples BMI was found to be significantly associated with BMD in both rural and urban postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Body Mass Index (BMI) was found to be significantly associated with BMD. BMI is an important determinant of BMD in Indian females.
7. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Halimium Halimifolium, Cistus Salviifolius and Cistus Monspeliensis Ahlem Rebaya, Souad Igueld Belghith, Safa Hammrouni, Abderrazak Maaroufi, Malika Trabelsi Ayadi, Jamila Kalthoum Chérif
The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial and antifungal activities of crude extracts from leaves and flower of Halimium halimifolium, and compared with those of Cistus salviifolius and Cistus monspeliensis.The tested plants (leaves and flowers) were extracted with ethanol, the activities were screened against three Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella enteric, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli), and two pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those microorganisms through a disc-diffusion method employing 15 ?L of each sample per paper discs (6 mm in diameter). Comparable results were carried out using Gentamicin and Amphotericin as standard antibiotics. Ethanol extracts of different parts of plant exhibited good activity against all microorganisms tested. The inhibition zone measured ranged from 10 to 26 mm against all the bacteria and 8 to 20 mm against fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1.562 to 12.5 mg. mL-1 and 3.125 to 25 mg. mL-1 respectively. The Cistus salviifolius leaves had the most potent bactericidal activity. On the other hand, Candida albicans and Aspergillus Niger were the least susceptible microorganisms to all Cistus extracts. In the present work, the antimicrobial potential of ethanol extracts of leaves and flower of Halimium halimifolium, Cistus salviifolius and Cistus monspeliensis is demonstrated. The high levels of antibacterial activities of have been detected, indicating that this plant may serve as an excellent source of natural antibacterial for disease prevention.
8. The Inhibition Effect of Kelakai (Stenochlaena Palustris) Extract on Cadmium-Induced Glycation and Fructation In Vitro Eko Suhartono, Muhammad Bahriansyah, Triawanti
The objectives of this study were to determine the inhibition effect of kelakai (Stenochlena palustris) extract against cadmium (Cd)-induced glycation and fructation in vitro. The inhibiton effect of kelakai extract was determined by assessing the concentration of methylglyoxal (MG), Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPPs), and carbonyl compound (CC). In this present study, glycation and fructation reaction were made using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a protein and glucose or fructose as a reducing sugar and Cd as a catalyst. Each model then divided into 5 groups consisting of: BSA + glucose or fructose as group 1 (T1); BSA + glucose or fructose + Cd as group 2 (T2); BSA + glucose or fructose + Cd + 5 mg/l of kelakai extract as group 3 (T3); BSA + glucose or fructose + Cd + 10 mg/l of kelakai extract as group 4 (T4); and BSA + glucose or fructose + Cd + 15 mg/l of kelakai extract as group 5 (T5). Results of this present study shows that Cd could increased the rate constant of MG, AOPPs, and CC formation both in glycation or fructation. Administration of plant extract could decreased the rate constant of MG, AOPPs, and CC formation induced by Cd both in glycation and fructation. The results also shows that the rate constant of the formation of MG, AOPPs, and CC in fructation were higher than glycation. In conclusions, the resuts of this present study indicated that Cd could increased the rate constant of MG, AOPPs, and CC formation while the administration of kelakai extract could decreased the rate constant. It suggest that kelakai extract have inhibitory effect against Cd-induced glycation and fructation reaction in vitro.
9. Study of the Serum Levels of Iron, Ferritin and Magnesium in Diabetic Complications Renuka P, M Vasantha
Alteration in mineral status has been found to be associated with impaired insulin release, resistance and dysglycemia. To study the mineral status in diabetic complications – thirty patients each with diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy along with thirty uncomplicated diabetes mellitus patients and age matched thirty healthy controls were recruited for this study. Estimation of glycemic status, magnesium, iron and ferritin levels was done. Magnesium levels were found to be significantly decreased in the microvascular complications which correlated negatively with glycated hemoglobin. Iron and ferritin levels were found to be significantly increased in diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Hypomagnesemia, increased iron levels and hyperferritinemia seem to be associated with microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus as either causative factors or as a consequence of the disease. Screening of patients for these factors might help in the management of progression of the disease.
10. Effect of BPA on Protein, Lipid Profile and Immuno Histo Chemical Changes in Placenta and Uterine Tissues of Albino Rat Geetharathan T, Josthna P
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical produced in large quantities for use primarily in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. The potential teratogenic effects and fetal toxicity of environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptors have become a great concern in recent years, and they have yet to be fully characterized. The present study was conducted to estimate protein, lipid contents and immunohisto chemical changes in placental and uterine tissues of BPA exposure during the period of pregnancy in Rattus norvegicus. Pregnant rats were administered 50 and 500mg/kg.b.w/day of BPA orally using sesame oil as a vehicle from days 8th – 15th of gestation. The control group received sesame oil only. On completion of the treatment period, the experimental animals were sacrificed under light anesthesia. BPA also induced changes in placental and uterine tissues, dose-dependent decrease in protein and lipid contents in serum of rat. The present study suggested that, in immunohisto chemical studies the presence of caspase-3 protein was observed in the placental and uterine tissues, dose -dependent decrease in protein and lipid contents adversely affected the embryo fetal, placental and uterine development of the pregnant female rats.
12. A Study to Assess the Knowledge on Micronutrient Deficiencies Among Mothers with Under Five Children in Maraimalai Nagar G S Samundeeswary, S Tamil selvi, M Hemamalini
Micronutrient deficiencies are a significant cause of malnutrition and associated ill health throughout the world. This is particularly true in the developing world, where nearly 20% of the population suffers from iodine deficiency, about 25% of children have subclinical vitamin A deficiency, and more than 40% of children are anemic. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge on micronutrient deficiencies among mothers with under five children in Maraimalai Nagar. Quantitative approach and descriptive survey design was adopted for the present study. A total of 50 samples were selected using non probability purposive sampling technique at Maraimalai Nagar. The tool used for the study comprised of two sections. Section A- Demographic data (which includes age, education, occupation, monthly income, type of family, religion, source of information on micro nutrient deficiency) and Section B- a structured questionnaire developed by the investigator which included 30 question to assess the knowledge on micronutrient deficiency. The data was collected from the 50 samples and the analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The major study findings shows that, among 50 mothers selected for the study 25 (50%) mothers have inadequate knowledge and 25 (50%) mothers have moderately adequate knowledge. None of them have adequate knowledge. Considering the association between the level of knowledge and the demographic variables, there is significant association between the knowledge and source of information at P = 0.004 level.
The death on cardiovascular disease can be caused by thrombosis. Thrombosis is triggered by irreversibel activity of thrombocyte aggregation. However, almost all prescribed drugs exhibiting antiplatelet activity are associated with a large number of side effects. Then, exploration of medicinal plants which have cardioprotective activity especially as antiplatelet aggregation agent are needed. One of the medicinal plant, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, has been known to keep people’s health. This study was undertaken to investigate anti-platelet aggregation activity of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract (CEE). There were two groups of CEE, the first group was n-hexane purified CEE (pCEE) while the second group was non-purified CEE (npCEE). In vitro study of antiplatelet aggregation was evaluated by Born method using a Model 490 Chrono Log aggregometer. The blood plasma of male Sprague dawley rats were collected and 10 μM adenosine diphosphat (ADP) was used as agonist. The results showed that both of pCEE and npCEE had anti-platelet aggregation activity on the range concentration of 200, 400, and 800 µg/ml. However, antiplatelet aggregation activity of pCEE and npCEE were not different statistically. Purification process using n-hexane on Centella asiatica herbs powder does not influence its antiplatelet aggregation activity.
14. 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D level in Type 2 Diabetics and Non Diabetics: A Comparative Study Merajul Haque Siddiqui, Rahul Saxena, Shailza Verma, G D Sharma
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects about 150 million populations worldwide and this figure is expected to be double in next two decades. Although role of vitamin D deficiency in musculoskeletal diseases are well documented, its connection with other diseases including DM pathophysiology has been implicated. Aim: Therefore, an attempt has been made to measure 25(OH) vitamin D levels in T2DM and non-diabetic population and to determine their relation with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Material and methods: In the present study, serum 25(OH) vitamin D and HbA1C levels along with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels were measured in 50 diabetic patients and statistically compared with that of age matched 50 non diabetics subjects, served as control by using student’s t test and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis. Results: Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels were found to be decreased significantly (p<0.001) in T2DM subjects as compared to the control. HbA1c, fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels were increased significantly (p<0.001). In addition, 25(OH) vitamin D level was negatively correlated with HbA1c (p<0.05; r = -0.528) in diabetic patients. Conclusion: On the basis of the present study, we conclude that hyperglycemia is linked with poor vitamin D status and the effects of this deficiency during type 2 diabetes seem to have negative consequences on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis.