Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume8,Issue6

1. Effects of Task Oriented Approach on Affected Arm Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy
Alli K, Udaya kumar M
Abstract
Objective: To study the effect of task – oriented approach on affected arm function in children with cerebral palsy.  Design: Quantitative pre and post   experimental design. Settings:  The study was conducted in local rehab centres  at Chennai. Participants: Subjects were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Outcome measures: Box and Blocks test and WeeFIM . Result: The result  indicate there was significant differences in the scores of the post-test when compared to  the pre-test score. Over 6 weeks training period, a significant difference  was observed in the BBT, and WeeFIM scores of the participants. Conclusion: The result indicates that task-oriented arm training significantly improved functional activities of the affected arm. Have concluded that task-oriented training also reduced the dysfunction in affected arm.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

2. Microbial Analysis of Air in a Public Hospital in the City of Fez, Morocco
Bekkari H, Benchemsi N, Touijer H, Berrada S, Maniar S, Ettayebi M, El Ouali Lalami A
Abstract
The hospital environment generally comprises, water, air, and surfaces… which are often contaminated with micro-organisms of human and environmental origins. These germs constitute microbial reservoirs that may present a risk of infection for hospitalized patients. In this light we studied the microbiological quality of the air in a public hospital in the city of Fez, in order to prevent nosocomial infections. A prospective study over a period of 4 months was conducted at eight services. The samples were prepared with the sedimentation technique, by exposing the Petri dishes containing nutrient agar, in an area of 1 m2 for 15 minutes. The dishes were incubated at 37 ± 1 °C for 48 h. Isolates were identified by conventional biochemical gallery and bioMériaux API gallery. A total of 32 samples were analyzed. Microbial identification showed the presence of 14 bacterial types, with the dominance of coagulase negative Staphylococcus (48%), and followed by Bacillus sp (14%), Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas salmonicida (8%) each, Gram negative cocci (7%) and Pseudomonas vesicularis (5%). Other bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas putrificiens, Streptococcus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquificiens, putrificiens Serratia, Serratia rubidaea and Stenotromonas maltophila were isolated with low proportions. All studied hospital blocks showed a diverse microbial load: trauma (20%), surgery (17%), intensive care (16%), central operating room (14%), neonatology (13%), kitchen (10 %), cardiovascular gastrology (7%) and emergency (4%). These results demonstrated the need to implement of systematic measures of hospital surveillance a comprehensive policy for the prevention of nosocomial infections including a systematic air treatment protocol.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

3. Prevalence of Klebsiella Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Tiruchirapalli, India
Susethira A R, Uma A
Abstract
Urinary tract infection is a common health issue encountered in medical practice and leads to frequent antibiotic prescription in outpatient department strains of Klebsiella are challenging for the clinicians when it is become a multidrug resistant Klebsiella either inside the hospital or in outpatient department. Thus this study has its own objective to determine the prevalence of Klebsiella bacteriuria among urine samples received in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory from February 2012 to June 2015. A battery of 3,958 urine samples was included. All the urine samples which are having the criteria for inclusion were subjected for bacteriological screening. Further confirmation performed by microscopy, biochemical tests and special staining. Among the urine samples processed, 170 samples supported Klebsiella sp isolation. Further, species level determination resulted K. pneumoniae (116) and K. oxytoca (54). All the isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test. This study revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae isolation from UTI in this region is predominant.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

4. Determination of Awareness and Nicotine Dependency Level Among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia
Arief M, Shankar N, Iizhar A S, Harika B, Kumar D, Junaid F
Abstract
Globally smoking is considered as one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer which leads to cause premature deaths. In Malaysia, shisha smoking is an upcoming trend which attracts a large number of teenagers. The aim of the present study is to examine the awareness and nicotine dependence level of shisha smokers. In order to achieve the aim we included shisha smokers of age 18 years and above in our study. 150 participants were selected and self-administered questionnaire was distributed to them at restaurants which offer shisha smoking in petaling jaya. The most significant age group of shisha smokers observed in our study was 22-24 years. The participants who started to smoke at the age of 18 are the highest and the factors which influenced them to get addicted are stress, fun, style and friends. Most of them have a perception that shisha smoking is not harmful to health and may not harm passive smokers moreover it doesn’t have the same health risk as cigarette or increase the risk of cancer. In fact shisha smokers are exposed to more carbon monoxide and smoke than are cigarette smokers. In the present study the percentage of dependency level shows 50% under low dependency, 20% under intermediate and 12% under high dependence level. Even though the percentage of high dependence is low, it will still have a major impact on the society as this number might increase unless an appropriate measure is taken to educate them as they lack the awareness of negative consequences of shisha smoke.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

5. Study of Bacterial Dominance and its Occurrence Frequency in Dental Plaque Sample
Subramonian S, Segin Chandran, Murugan M, Murugan T
Abstract
The intention of the present study was to investigate the bacterial dominance of dental plaque. For this study, 20 plaque samples were collected from adult humans of the around Marthandam area, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu. The collected plaque samples were inoculated separately into the Basal salt medium and Basal salt medium agar plates. The morphologically different bacterial colonies were selected, identified by studying cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. As a result, 7 bacterial genera such as Bacillus sp, Lactobacillus sp, Staphylococcus sp-I, Staphylococcus sp-II, Micrococcus sp, Streptococcus sp, Proteus sp and Pseudomonas sp. were identified. Among these, Streptococcus sp has been found highest incidence (21.57 %) followed by Staphylococcus sp-I (17.65%).

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

6.Fisetin Ameolirates the Azoxymethane and Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis Associated Colorectal Cancer
Kunchari Kalaimathi S, Sudhandiran G
Abstract
Colitis associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is the subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC), CRC is the third most cause of morbidity worldwide. Chronic inflammation caused by oxidative stress is the main risk factor for CAC establishment. Fisetin (3,3’,4’,7 tetrahydroxy flavones) is a dietary flavonoid with major health benefits. This study is aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effect of Fisetin against azoxymethane (AOM) and Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced CAC. Male Balb/c mice received intraperitoneal injection of AOM (10mg/kg) on day 1, then 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days followed by drinking water for 14 days and this cycle repeated twice. Mice induced with AOM/DSS received Fisetin (20mg/kg) during the experimental period. On the day 62, animals were sacrificed and the colon was processed for biochemical and histopathological examinations. Diagnostic tumor marker 5’ nucleotidase and γ glutamyl transpeptidase levels were decreased by fisetin treatment. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamin C and vitamin E depletion due to AOM/DSS induction were brought near to normal by Fisetin. Administeration of fisetin showed a significant increase in the protein expression levels of bax, caspase-3 and decreased expression level of bcl-2 compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that fisetin exhibits chemopreventive and therapeutic effect against CAC.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

7. Effect of Aloe Vera Leaf Extract on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Young Mice
J. S. Kadam, R N Patil
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders, characterized by defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The synthetic oral drugs are used for treatment of diabetes. These drugs are associated with number of side effects. Management of diabetes withought any side effect is still challenge to medical system. Present work aimed to evaluate hypoglycemic and antioxidant potency of Aloe vera leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetis in young mice. For this work young mice (1-2 month) divided into three groups viz; control group, alloxan induced diabetic group and recovery group were used. The estimation of blood glucose level and antioxidative enzymes viz; Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was carried out from pancreas. The treatment of Aloe vera leaf extract resulted in to a remarkable decrease in blood glucose level and an increase in SOD, CAT, and GPx in the pancreas of diabetic mice.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

8. Characterization of Polyphenols, Polysaccharides by HPLC and Their Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiinflammatory Activities of Defatted Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) Meal Extract
Alaa A Gaafar, Eman A Ibrahim, Mohsen S Asker, Ahmae F Moustafa, Zeinab A Salama
Abstract
This study describes some active substances of hot and cold water extract from defatted cake Moringa oleifera seed. Phenolic (TP), flavonoids (TF), tannins (TT) compounds, and polysaccharide and their antioxidants, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities were examined. The results showed that total phenolics of 15.76, 15.01 mg/g DW, flavonoid 3.11, 3.09 mg/g DW and tannins 4.99, 5.48 mg/g DW for cold and hot water extract respectively. According to the phytochemical assay, defatted cake Moringa oleifera showed the highest antioxidant activity, which could be related with their contents of phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial assay was examined. The results show that Moringa oleifera polysaccharide extract exhibited broad spectrum activity against the test organisms. Seven phenolic compounds (ellagic, tannic, coumarin, benzoic, catechin, and caffiec) were identified and quantified in both extracts. The polysaccharide were analyzed sugars by HPLC. Inulin was the main sugars in defatted seed, whereas maltose, raffinose and lactose were the most abundant sugars. Profiles of 15 different natural mono sugars are identified. The results demonstrated that, defatted cake Moringa oleifera seed concentrate is an exceptionally encouraging of bioactive constituents. Therefore, it could be concluded that polyphenols present in the Moringa oleifera extract may be responsible for the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities which could be a good source of antioxidants, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory for food and pharmaceutical industries.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

9. Assessment of Gingival Thickness in Smokers and Non-Smokers –A Clinical Study
Ankita Taltia, Radhika, Arjunkumar
Abstract
Smoking has its effects on the periodontium, which is reflected by morphologic and histologic changes in the gingiva. Gingival thickness is one among the factors, which has become a subject of considerable interest in periodontics both from the epidemiological and therapeutic point of view. By taking gingival thickness into consideration during treatment planning, more appropriate strategies for periodontal management may be developed, resulting in more predictable treatment outcomes. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study is to comparatively assess the gingival thickness among smokers and non-smokers. Methods: The study group included 30 age matched smokers and non-smokers whose gingival thickness was measured in the maxillary anterior teeth by trans-gingival probing mid-buccally in the attached gingiva and at the base of the interdental papilla. Plaque index and sulcus bleeding index were recorded. The data was statistically analysed using paired t-test and Z-test. Results and Conclusion: Sulcus bleeding index and plaque index were similar between both the groups. Gingiva is similar in thickness in interdental areas and midbuccal areas both in smokers and non-smokers. Both midbuccal and interdental areas were thicker among smokers when compared to non-smokers.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

10. Cigarette Smoking Provoked Proinflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Smokers
Hesham A M Gomaa, Mohamed F El Shafie, Khaled Younes Mohamed
Abstract
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases. The mechanisms of these diseases include the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and generation various reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that can be inactivate endogenous antioxidants mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant enzyme activities related to oxidative stress in apparently healthy smokers. The study included 45 apparently healthy smokers divided into mild, moderate and heavy smokers according the smoking index and 40 healthy non smoker males served as control group Inflammatory markers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) as well as total homocysteine (tHcy), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content (PCC), were measured in plasma of all participants. The results revealed significant difference between smokers as compared with nonsmokers in levels of tHcy, MDA, PCC, IL-6, TNF-α, Vit C, GSH, CAT and SOD and significant difference among mild, moderate and heavy smokers. These findings insist that smoking leads to increase free radical load and relatively low antioxidant status which results in an imbalance between oxidant/antioxidant status, reinforcing recommendations concerning the benefits of smoking cessation.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

11. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Acalypha indica Crude Leaf Extract
Prem Kumar K, Nirmalababurao, A Roja Rani
Abstract
Medicinal plants represent a great deal of untapped reservoir of drugs. The structural diversity of their component molecules makes a valuable source of lead compounds. Plants have been the major original source of many drugs used in the treatment of diseases today. Our present study was carried out on analysis of antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and phytochemical compounds from methanolic extract of Acalypha indica an Indian plant known to possess different medicinal properties. The plant extracts were subjected to priliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, proteins, free amino acids, saponins, phytosterols, flavonoids, fixed oils and fats a total of 4 microorganisms used to assess the antimicrobial activities, it includes, two gram positive bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis; two grams negative Bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhicollected from department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad. by agarwell diffusion method.Anti-oxidant activity of plant extract was performed by DPPH, FRAP, TBA and TCA method showed good results.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

12. Cord Blood Bisphenol-A Level in Relation to Gestational Age and Neonatal Anthropometric Measurements in A Sample of Egyptian New Borns
Youssef M M, Salah El-Din E M, Badawy E A, Morsy S, Abu-Saif I S, Badr El-Din O G, Mohamed T S
Abstract
Background: Wide spread human exposure to bisphenol-A and evidence of developmental toxicity in experimental animals has raised significant public health concerns. Objective: To estimate levels of Bisphenol-A in cord blood samples of Egyptian newborns, correlating these levels with gestational age and neonatal anthropometric measurements. Subjects and methods: Eighty neonates were recruited randomly from public and private Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospitals. Their gestational age ranged from 31 to 39 weeks. Assessment of gestational age was performed in the delivery room. Neonatal anthropometric measurements were carried out within the first 24 hours and cord blood Bisphenol-A level was assayed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: BPA was detected in all cord blood samples with levels ranged from 0.87 to 15.11 ng/ml and median level was 5.06 ng/ml. Neonates with BPA level above the median level had lower gestational age, lower birth weight, length and head circumference when compared to neonates with BPA level below the median; the differences were statistically highly significant (p <0.001). BPA level showed highly significant negative correlations with gestational age and anthropometric measures in neonates with BPA level above the median. Conclusion: All neonates in this study were subjected to prenatal BPA exposure with varying grades. Adverse effects of BPA on fetal growth are dose-dependent and to some extent sex-dependent. High cord blood levels of BPA are negatively associated with gestational length and birth size.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

13.Progression of Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Surapon Tangvarasittichai, Suwipar Deebukkhum, Orathai Tangvarasittichai
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have increased oxidative stress, inflammation and reduced antioxidant defenses mechanisms in the circulatory system. This study demonstrates the progression and correlation of oxidative stress and inflammation with chronic kidney disease (CKD), pre-hemodialysis and hemodialysis in T2DM patients. A total of 292 T2DM patients participated in the present study. These T2DM patients’ diagnoses ranged from stage 1 to 5 according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Serum levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased, but total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in these T2DM patients was decreased. The eGFR was inversely correlated with MDA, hs-CRP, NAG, TG/HDL-C and positively correlated with HDL-C and TAC. Hs-CRP and TG/HDL-C were positively correlated with MDA, and negatively correlated with TAC and HDL-C in the present study. Multiple forward stepwise linear regression analyses demonstrated independent predictors of eGFR were hs-CRP (b = -0.572, r2 =0.425, p<0.001), Glu (b = -0.162, r2 =0.458, p<0.001), MDA (b = -0.111, r2 =0.479, p= 0.02) and TG/HDL-C ratio (b = -0.099, r2 =0.486, p= 0.04).  The CKD progression, as demonstrated by increase in BUN, CT and decreased eGFR, was concomitant with increased MDA, hs-CRP levels and TG/HDL-C ratio in each group, but slightly declined in the patients receiving hemodialysis. eGFR reduction was parallel with the increased of oxidative stress and inflammation when CKD developed and progressed. Conclusions: oxidative stress and inflammation may underlie the progression and decline of renal function and structural damage to kidneys in T2DM patients.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

14. Ameliorative Effect of Olmesartan Medoxomil on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats
Darwish Fatima, Al laham Shaza, Al-Manadili Ahmad
Abstract
Background and aim: The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is a homeostatic pathway widely known to regulate cardiovascular and renal physiology; however, little is known about its influence in gastrointestinal tissues. There are several reports showing influences by RAS and its key mediator angiotensin II (Ang II) on intestinal epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport. Data are accumulating, suggesting involvement in GI mucosal inflammation and carcinogenesis.  Our target was to evaluate the protective alleviating effects of RAS blockade by using Olmesartan Medoxomil (OLM-M) with marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Materials and methods: Pretreatment with OLM-M at a dose of (5mg/kg, p.o.), 7days before induction of colitis, continued till the 4th day. The severity of colitis in rats was assessed by macroscopic and histopathological examinations. Results: The results suggested that OLM-M attenuated the macroscopic and microscopicolonic damage induced by acetic acid when administrated before induction of colitis (prophylactic effects). Conclusion: OLM-M may be effective in prophylaxis of ulcerative colitis through targeting RAS.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

15. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Essential Oils from Moroccan Plants Against Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Hospital Environment in Morocco
Ez zoubi Yassine, Farah Abdellah, Maniar Saâd, El Ouali Lalami Abdelhakim
Abstract
Even if aromatic and medicinal plants have been used from ancient times as natural therapies and are considered as alternatives to synthetic drugs, scientific investigations to evaluate antimicrobial activity of Essential Oils (EOs) are needed.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of five EOs against pathogen bacteria as well as to compare its inhibitory effect versus commercial antibiotics. The essential oils has been obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and its has tested in vitro against bacteria isolated from surfaces in nephrology service at Ibn Al khatib Hospital in the Fez city, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the paper disk agar diffusion method. The essential oils of Junniperus communis and Artemisia absinthium showed stronger antibacterial effects than the other essential oils. However the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis which has the smallest inhibition zone. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia liquefaciens were found to be the most resistant species, Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive bacterial species to essential oils. Among the commercial antibiotics, Chloromphenicol had the widest coverage against all bacteria’s, followed by Gentamicin, but the Penicillin antibiotic has showed poor activity against all bacteria’s. Our results suggest that essential oils could be used for the development of new types of antibacterial agents and may therefore be used as therapeutic or disinfection compounds against these bacteria.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

16. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression at an Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital
Lakshmi Bhuvana G, Ramam Sripada, Devi Priya S, B B P Raja Sanjay, Satya Rajeswari K, Rama Chandran S
Abstract
Background: The term postpartum depression can be used to characterize all kinds of depressive symptoms after child birth. Every year approximately 10-20% of new mothers were affecting by this disorder. A mother’s ongoing depression can contribute to behavioral, emotional, cognitive and interpersonal problems in later life. Post partum depression which is left untreated may have long term adverse effects. Approximately more than 50% of the post partum depression cases were left unrecognized at present. Hence, in this study, we made an attempt to assess the prevalence of post partum among the post partum women who were interviewed after their recent delivery. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving post partum women who have delivered a baby recently, were included in the study and they were interviewed after one week of their delivery. Patients who were not willing to participate and patients with other existing psychological disorders were excluded from the study. Data collection was done by using “Hamilton Rating scale for Depression”. Results: A total of 236 postpartum women were screened for depression by using the Hamilton rating scale for depression and about 74(31.4%) were found to be with depression. According to Hamilton’s rating scale for depression, 81.1% of the depressed postpartum women were found to be mildly depressed, 14.9% were found to be moderately depressed, 2.7% were found to be severely depressed and 1.3% were observed to be very severely depressed.  According to the age wise categorization majority of the postpartum depressed women were found between the age group of 21 to 25 years (55.4%), followed by the age group 16 to 20 years (24.3%).  Based on the severity of depression majority of the postpartum women were of 21-25 years age and most of them were found to be mildly depressed followed by moderately depressed.  According to the gravidae wise categorization majority of the postpartum depression women belongs to gavidae-2 (47.3%) followed by gravidae-1 (31.1%). Among 74 depressed postpartum women, 23 (31.1%) were of gravidae-1, 35 (47.3%) were of gravidae-2, 13 (17.7%) were of gravidae-3, 2 (2.7%) were of gravidae-4, and the remaining 1 (0.2%) belongs to gravidae-5. Conclusion: According to our study, the prevalence of postpartum depression was found to be 31.4%. Majority of depressed individuals were of mildly depressed followed by moderately depressed. Most of the depressed individuals belong to multi gravidae due to various reasons that includes still birth, family pressure about the gender of the child, bad relationship with husband and previous miscarriages. In our study very few people were found with co morbidities like anemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in which the severity of the depression more. Sleep disturbances, work and activity, changes in the appetite and general somatic symptoms were observed to be more common among the postpartum women with depression. It is the responsibility of all the healthcare professionals to rule out the postpartum depression at an early stage which helps the patient in reducing the emotional suffering.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

17. In Vitro Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Activity of Ethanol Extract and Fraction Roselle Calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)
Sri Wahyuningsih, ElinYulinahSukandar, Sukrasno
Abstract
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate xanthine oxidase inhibitor activity of ethanol extract and fraction of roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) in vitro. Methods: The principle of measurement of xanthine oxidase activity inhibition is measuring the reduce of uric acid amount formed from the reaction catalyzed by xanthine oxidase, The uric acid is formed from the reaction between hypoxanthine and xanthine with xanthine oxidase enzyme. In this study allopurinol is use as reference drug. Result: The results showed that ethanol extract (100 µg/ml) can inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme 25.13 %, water fraction inhibit 25.81% and the ethyl acetate fraction inhibit 32.25 %. with IC50 value of extract is 1294.37, IC50 water fraction 830.71 and IC50 value of ethyl acetat fraction is 290.62 µg/ml . Conclusion: Ethanol extract and fractions Roselle calyx have xanthine oxidase inhibitor activity with IC50 value of extract is 1294.37, IC50 water fraction 830.71 and IC50 value of ethyl acetat fraction is 290.62 µg/ml

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

18. Syntheses, Molecular Docking Study and Anticancer Activity Examination of p-Methoxycinnamoyl Hydrazides
Melanny Ika Sulistyowaty, Nugroho A E, Putra G S, Ekowati J, Budiati T
Abstract
In this study, we attempted to develop a potential anticancer drug by synthesizing some of p-methoxycinnamoyl hidrazides. The compounds were synthesized from the ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC), isolated from rhizome of Kaemferia galanga Linn. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, and MS spectroscopic methods. The study was followed by anticancer activity evaluation of the compounds by in silico study using Molegro® ver. 5.5 and by in vitro assay against human breast cancer cells (T47D) by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The yield of derivatives of p-methoxycinnamoylhidrazide was around 25 to 90%. The result showed that 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N’-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) acryloyl) acrylohydrazide has the highest value of rerank score (-124.81). In addition, from the in vitro assay, it was revealed that 2-hydroxybenzohydrazide has the lowest IC50 (0.2 x 106 nM) against T47D as the most effective compound than the others. p-Methoxycinnamoyl hidrazides have been synthesized as low as 25% yields. Among the tested compounds, 2-hydroxybenzohydrazide is the most effective compound against T47D (human breast cancer) cell line in vitro. While in silico study result showed that 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N’-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) acryloyl)acrylo- hydrazide has better activity than the lead compound, EPMC.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016

19. Thyroid Dysfunction as Predictor of Sustained Virological Response (SVR) During HCV Treatment with PEGylated Interferon and Ribavirin
Kamal A El-Atrebi, Hala T El-Bassyouni, Nashwa Ahmed Zaki
Abstract
Background: Thyroid disease (TD) is the most common endocrine disorder associated with HCV infection, especially in conjunction with interferon-α (IFN-α)-based therapy. The aim of the work was to evaluate the role of thyroid dysfunction in HCV treated patients with combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin and correlate it with fibrosis stage.  Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 850 HCV genotype 4 Egyptian patients treated with combination therapy were studied. Their thyroid function was normal before the initiation of the treatment then 218 patients developed thyroid dysfunction after starting the treatment. Liver biopsy was done for all patients and they were divided into two groups; group I: early fibrosis and group II: significant fibrosis. Thyroid profile and sustained virological response (SVR) were assessed.  Results: The SVR in HCV patients who did not develop thyroid dysfunction was 55.7% while it was 88.1% in patients who developed thyroid dysfunction during treatment. There were no significant differences between both groups in body mass index (BMI), gender, liver fibrosis, level of viremia (PCR) and SVR (PCR negative). Hypothyroidism was detected in 70.6 % and thyrotoxicosis in 29.4 %. The PCR negative patients were more in group II (92.3%) and 7.7% were PCR positive, while in group I the PCR negative patients were 84.2% and 15.8% were PCR positive. Conclusion: This study nurtures the necessity to carefully observe thyroid function in patients during and following completion of interferon treatment. Our findings suggest that thyroid dysfunction can be considered an important predictive value of SVR in HCV combination therapy.

Abstract Online: 08 June, 2016