Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume8,Issue9

1. Computational Insights on Novel Rock-1 Inhibitors from Marine Compounds Towards Anti-Glaucoma Therapeutics
Rohini Karunakaran, Srikumar Padmalayam Sadanandan
Abstract
Glaucoma is a severe condition that causes damage to the eyes and is characterized by an excavated cupping appearance of the optic nerve with progressive thinning of retinal nerve fibre layer tissue and loss of vision. The disease affects millions of individual and is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) has been recognized as a key risk factor for glaucoma. Among the Rho kinase activator, ROCK-1 (Rho-associated protein kinase-1) is reported as a key target in glaucoma therapeutics. ROCK’s are a class of serine/threonine kinases and is involved in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction and specific ROCK-1 inhibitors can decrease IOP. The aim of this computational study is to screen and identify novel ROCK-1 inhibitors from marine compounds. The molecular docking protocol is followed with the three-dimensional structure of human ROCK-1 and the selected ligand dataset of marine compounds. The docking results was evaluated by least binding energy and hydrogen bonds interactions that confirmed the effective inhibition of caulerpenyne. Molecular dynamics studies also confirmed the stability of ROCK-1 caulerpenyne complex. Our study will decipher the structural inhibition mechanism with best marine compound caulerpenyne from Caulerpa sp. and aid in the development of novel ROCK-1inhibitor that can act as anti-glaucoma agents.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

2. Metformin: A Promising Outlook in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris
Azadi A, Forouzani-Haghighi B, Dorvash M R
Abstract
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder in civilized countries that their diet consists of high glycemic load and high amount of dairy proteins. Recent studies have shown that this disease is derived from express of mTORC1 (the mammalian target of rapamycin) which also leads to increased body mass index (BMI) and Insulin resistance. mTORC1 complex, which is significantly increased in the skin of acne patients, is the mammalian target of rapamycin. We hypothesized that acne vulgaris can be treated by any drug that is able to suppress mTORC1 complex. Acne pathogenesis is mediated through mTORC1 over activation, so metformin may relieve acne symptoms by AMPK (5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) dependent suppression of mTORC1. Actually, by applying a topical form of this drug on acne spots, mTORC1 over activation in skin cells can be inhibited which leads to disappear of acne spots.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

3. A Review of the Antimicrobial Properties of three Selected Underutilized Fruits of Malaysia
Nurul ’Amirah Aziz
Abstract
Fruits have many important biological effects such as antioxidant, antitumor, antimutagenic and antimicrobial properties1. This advantage also applies to the Malaysian fruits including underutilized fruits. Underutilized fruits are fruits that are rarely eaten, unknown and unfamiliar because some of the species only exist at a certain region2. Antibiotic resistance can be minimized by using new compounds that are not based on the existing synthetic antimicrobial agents3. Thus, natural antimicrobials seem to be the most promising answer to many of the increasing concerns regarding antibiotic resistance and could yield better results than antimicrobials from the combinatorial chemistry and other synthetic procedures4. This review paper emphasizes the antimicrobial characteristics possessed by three underutilized fruits namely Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus), Averrhoa bilimbi (A. bilimbi) and Passiflora edulis (P. edulis) so that they can be used as natural antibiotic drugs and natural preservatives in processed foods. These three fruits are commonly known as “cermai”, “belimbing buluh” and “markisa” respectively in Malaysia.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

4. Effect of Bisphenol A as an Environmental Obesogen on Antioxidant Activity
Fateheya M Metwally, Hend Rashad, Heba Mahdy-Abdallah, Asmaa Mahmoud Mohammed, Adel Hasheesh
Abstract
Background: The synthetic chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is a common endocrine –disruptor. Its widespread use has resulted in extensive worldwide exposure. It has been linked to obesity and many other health effects. Objectives: The aim of the work is to study the impact of BPA exposure on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a group of females. The study was conducted on 33 obese female matched in their age with another 26 overweight females and 31 referent females employed in administrative tasks. Results revealed that the obese females had higher mean values of BPA levels (1.83±1.1 ng/ml) when compared to their matched referent (1.4±0.4 ng/ml) and overweight females (1.5± 0.48 ng/ml). The difference between the   mean values of BPA in the studied groups was statistically insignificant (p-value>0.05). However, significant direct correlation was observed between the body mass index of studied groups and their serum levels of the environmental pollutant BPA (r=0.2& p-value=0.038). The body mass index of the   studied groups showed a statistically significant direct correlation with the oxidative stress indicator Malondialdehyde. Moreover, according to the regression model, it could be predicted that each 1ng/ml increase in serum BPA level will lead to an increase in the serum level of Malondialdhyde by 0.25nmol/ml. The tested antioxidant enzymes activities were markedly lower in overweight and obese groups relative to the referent one. Conclusion: That rise in oxidative stress marker and decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities threaten human health and increase risk of different diseases.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

5. Elemental Analysis of Anti-Allergenic Indigenous Plants and their Possible Correlation with Therapeutic Activity
Pawar S G, Kamble V M
Abstract
Present study is mainly focused on elemental analysis of two selected antiallergenic indigenous plants (Cynadon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cymbopogan citratus (DC.) Stapf., family Poaceae) with the help of ICP-MS and CHNS Analyser. They have many medicinal properties which are used to cure numerous diseases. Phytochemicals like primary and secondary metabolites are formed in various combinations of major, minor and trace elements. In all 25 elements have been measured which include major, minor, trace and some toxic elements. The concentrations of all elements have been found to vary in both the plants. The basic elements like Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen were found maximum while trace, toxic and heavy metals have been found in minute concentrations and some were totally absent. The present data obtained can be useful to decide the dosage of the herbal or traditional drugs. The results are valuable for preparation of herbal medicines using various combinations of different medicinal plants and also discriminate nutritive value, helpful to improve pharmaceutical significance of both the antiallergenic medicinal plants.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

6. Survival of LPAI H5N1 in Water Containing Tilapia zillii
Neveen M Rizk, Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El Shesheny, Ahmed B Barakat, Sahar A Showman, Fagr Kh Abdel-Gawad, Mohamed A Ali
Abstract
The present study aimed to test the survival of LPAI H5N1 in water in the presence of Tilapia zillii fishes, the experiment was conducted using aquarium filled with 45 liters of Nile water and nine fishes of Tilapia zillii. The presence of the virus was tested in water samples by real-time RT-PCR. The viability and the titer of the virus in water samples extracted from aquarium were detected by Plaque infectivity assay and Heamagglutination assay, respectively. The results showed that, the viral RNA persisted 28 days in aquarium water. The CT values showed that the concentration of the virus seemed to be lowered by the time. The virus was survived in water containing fishes Tilapia zillii for 8 days by using plaque assay technique. In water containing Tilapia zillii fishes, the titer of LPAI-H5N1 virus was 512 and 64 HA at zero time and 4 days, respectively.  In conclusion, prolonged persistence and infectivity of the virus in water might provide an evidence for the possibility of re-infection of poultry and human who might use or deal with this contaminated water for
different purposes.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

7. Chlorinative Index in Liver Toxicity Induced by Iron
Nia Kania, Iskandar Thalib, Eko Suhartono
Abstract
Iron (Fe) is a metal that is present in high concentrations in coal dust. Exposure to coal dust could increase the concentration of Fe in the body and can cause several health problems, including liver cells damaged. However, the mechanism of liver cell damage by Fe in the coal dust is still not clear. In this present study, we proposed that Fe could induced liver cells damaged via chlorinative stress pathway. Thus, our study aimed to investigated the effect of Fe on liver cells via chlorinative stress pathway by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPPs), the myeloperoxidase (MPO) acivity, and chlorinative index (CI). The results revealed that Fe exposure could significantly increased H2O2 and AOPPs level, and CI in liver cells (P<0.05). The result also revealed that Fe exposure could decreased the MPO activity but non-statistically significant (P>0.05). These results indicated that Fe exposure induce chlorinative stress which can be seen from the increasing of H2O2 and AOPPs levels, and CI. However, the exact mechanism of Fe induced the chlorinative stress is still unclear yet, because the MPO activity did not statistically changed. Further study may be needed to determine the Fe mechanism to induce chlorinative stress.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

8. Formulation and Evaluation of Natural Antioxidant Cream Comprising Methanolic Peel Extract of Dimocarpus longan
Ravindran Muthukumarasamy, Alifah Ilyana, Nur ‘Afini Fithriyaani, Nur Ain Najihah, Nur Asyiqin, Mahendran Sekar

Abstract
Photo aging is a common problem that occurs in our community due to ongoing exposure to ultraviolet rays. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. Thus, the present study was to prepare and evaluate the antioxidant cream comprising the methanolic peel extracts of Dimocarpus longan for their radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity of peels and seeds methanolic extract (by continuous hot percolation-soxhletation) of D.  longan was assessed by using stable 2,2 -Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The extract of the D. longan fruits contained three major polyphenolic compounds which are corilagin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid which are responsible for the antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts of both peels and seeds of D. longan exhibited high radical scavenging properties, the IC50 result revealed that peels extract were having higher antioxidant properties with 23.5 µg/ml compared to the seeds 32.13 µg/ml. Based on the higher scavenging activity the peels was chosen to prepare as formulation. Thus, the cream was formulated with 2.5% of peels extract by fusion method with incorporation of two different emulsifying agents for two formulations (F1 & F2). The evaluation of the formulations was done on different parameters like pH, spreadability, rheological study, non-volatile matter at 105 °C, physical stability of cream and microbial limit test. Both the formulations (F1 & F2) were showed good pH, homogeneity, appearance, ease to remove, good consistency, spreadability and no microbial growth. However, after four weeks of storage formulation of F1 showed cracking and phase separation. The evaluation parameters of the formulated cream F2 showed good results and are safe to use for skin. The present results indicates that the D. longan fruit peel extract has a good potential for cosmetic product development.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

9. Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Allium fistulosum L. Leaves on Ascaris lumbricoides
Husori D I, Bancin D Y, Muhaimin, Bahri S, Patilaya P
Abstract
The current study was to assess the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Allium fistulosum leaves using Ascaris lumbricoides as test worm. Three concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. fistulosum leaves (50, 100, and 200 mg/ml) were separately tested against A. lumbricoides at room temperature for 7 hours. The results were expressed in terms of time to paralysis and time to death of the worms. Pyrantel pamoate was used as positive control, sodium chloride and carboxymethyl cellulose were served as negative and vehicle control, respectively. Phytochemical screening was also conducted to identify the chemical constituents of A. fistulosum leaves extracts. The results showed that the ethanol and aqueous extracts of A. fistulosum leaves to have anthelmintic activity at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL. Time to paralysis and time to death of the worms were doses dependent manner. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. fistulosum leaves have anthelmintic activity against roundworm A. lumbricoides. The leaf etanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant consisted of saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Further studies are suggested to isolate of the active compounds from the extract of A. fistulosum leaves that responsible for the anthelmintic activity.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

10. Histological Studies on Islets of Langerhans of Pancreas in Diabetic Mice after Curcumin Administration
Walvekar M V, Potphode N D, Desai S S, Deshmukh V M
Abstract
The present study was carried out to determine the effects of curcumin on blood glucose level and histology of pancreas in alloxan induced diabetic mice. 15 male albino mice weighing 26-30 gm were used. They were divided into 3 groups, control group received subcutaneous injection of 0.15 M acetate buffer for 15 days, alloxan induced group received subcutaneous injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight to induce diabetes and recovery group received intraperitoneal injection of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days. At the end of experiment body weight, pancreatic gland weight, blood glucose level was determined and histology of pancreas was studied by HE and PAS technique. In diabetic mice there was decrease in body weight, pancreatic gland weight and increase in blood glucose level but after treatment with curcumin significant increase in body weight and pancreatic gland weight and decrease in blood glucose level was observed. In histology there was decrease number and size of islets which was again increased after curcumin administration. In conclusion curcumin can be useful as curative agent in diabetes.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

11. Effectiveness of Partial Body Weight Supported Treadmill Training in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebralpalsy
Malarvizhi D¹*, Mahalakshmi E
Abstract
Background: The objective of this study is to find out the effectiveness of partial body weight support treadmill training in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy in improving self-selected gait velocity and Gross Motor Function. Study design:  Experimental study with two groups’ pre and post test. Intervention: 15 subjects in experimental group received partial body weight support treadmill training with conventional therapy and 15 subjects in control group received only conventional therapy for two months. Results: The statistical tool used in this study was paired ‘t’-test and independent ‘t’-test.    The results of the study showed that partial body weight support treadmill training was highly significant for children with cerebral palsy with mean (group A-72.0040; 0.092), (group B-66.9187; 0.078) and (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that partial body weight support treadmill training can be viewed as more value therapeutically for improving an accessible, practical and safe method to improve Gross Motor Function and walking velocity in spastic diplegic children.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

12. The Impact of Bisphenol A (BPA) As Environmental Obesogen on Lipids and Lipids Metabolism
Fateheya M Metwally, Magdy M Mohamed, Sharaf N E, Mohamed A Ghazy, El Mishad A M, Asmaa Elfiky
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and is a ubiquitous responsible for environmental chemical pollutant and can migrate from polymers to food or water. It is considered as an environmental obesogenic through promoting adipogenesis, lipid accumulation and endocrinal disrupting chemicals (EDCs) altering adipokine hormone release. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of BPA on lipid metabolism and its profile. This work included 85 females aging from 16 To 58 years, after application of exclusion criteria. Among them 48 females with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (Gr-A) and 37 females with BMI< 25 kg/m2 (Gr-B). All participants were subjected to detailed questionnaire and a clinical examination, sBPA, adiponectin, leptin hormones and lipid profile were assessed for all subjects. Results showed that the level of BPA was higher in (Gr-A) compared to (Gr-B).  A significantly high levels of leptin, cholesterol and LDL-c (p < 0.001) were recorded with significantly low levels of adiponectin (p < 0.001) & HDL-c (p<0.05) in (Gr-A) compared with those of (Gr-B). There was a positively significant correlation between BMI & BPA, cholesterol, LDL-c, and leptin while a negative one between BMI and adiponectin, HDL-c. If studied population was divided according to their BPA concentration, the adiponectin was significantly lower in Gr I of high BPA concentration.  However, adiponectin showed a non-linear relationship across different BPA concentration. In conclusion, this study showed that BPA is closely linked to obesity, in other words, it caused increasing in BMI via affecting the hormones responsible for lipid metabolism resulting in alteration of lipid profile.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

13. Comparison of Embedded Versus Added Motor Imagery Training for Improving Balance and Gait in Individuals with Stroke
Arulmozhe A, Sivakumar V P R
Abstract
Introduction: Residual impairments and functional limitations are the major cause of social restrictions and permanent disabilities in individuals with stroke. Loss of balance and gait are the most important functional disorders of individuals with stroke. Motor imagery (MI) when combined with physiotherapy can offer functional benefits after stroke. Two Motor Imagery integration strategies exist: added and embedded Motor Imagery. Both approaches were compared while learning a complex motor task (MT): ‘balance and gait’. Methods: patients attending SRM hospital after first stroke participated in a single-blinded, quasi experimental study with Motor Imagery embedded into physiotherapy (group A), Motor Imagery added to physiotherapy (group B). Both groups were participated in ten physiotherapy sessions. The outcome measures used were Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index and Visual and Kinesthetic Imagery Questionnaire. The post test was taken after two weeks of intervention. Results: 20 individuals with stroke (13 males and 7 females) were included. Both groups showed significant improvement in Balance, Gait and Imagination (p < 0.05). No differences were found between group A and group B. conclusion: The 2 – week’s program of embedded and added motor imagery training was equally effective to train the balance and gait in subjects with stroke. Thus, Embedded or Added Motor Imagery training combined with physiotherapy seems to be beneficial for stroke patients to learn the motor task.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

14. Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as Prognostic Biomarker in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients
Nervana Samy, Mie Afify, Nabila Abd El Maksoud, Mohamed Shalaan
Abstract
Cancer breast is considered as the most common cancer in Egypt; many studies have demanded that determination of serum vascular endothelial growth factor is a surrogate marker of angiogenesis.   In this study we aimed to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in comparison to cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 and CEA levels in patients with breast cancer.  We measured the serum level of VEGF by ELISA technique in 60 patients with histologically proven breast cancer and compared it with control group (23 healthy female volunteers with no previous history of breast cancer and other cancer-related diseases) to explore the association between this biomarker and clinicopathological parameters. The results demonstrated that serum VEGF, CA15-3 and CEA were significantly increased in all patients compared to control group (p< 0.001). VEGF was significantly increased in advanced stage patients compared to early stage patients, also, in patients with tumor size bigger than 2 cm and in patients with ER +ve than those ER-ve patients. Serum VEGF level was significantly correlated with tumor stage, grade, size, CA15.3 and CEA. In conclusion; determination of VEGF might be considered as promising prognostic biomarker that can predict the outcome of breast cancer disease.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

15. Antibiofilm Potential of Meropenem-Loaded Poly(Ɛ-Caprolactone) Nanoparticles Against Klebsiella pneumoniae
Khanum R, Qureshi M J, Mohandas K
Abstract
Colonisation of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces are difficult to treat with traditional methods, prompting investigations on novel treatment strategies. Drug delivery systems show potential for use in biofilm treatment and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) is a polymer emerging as an effective carrier in drug release technology. This study is aimed to synthesise polymeric nanoparticles incorporating meropenem, for investigation against K. pneumoniae biofilms and as a coating over central venous catheters. Meropenem-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles were prepared using a modified nanoprecipitation method. Their physical properties and drug incorporation activities were characterised. Planktonic cells and biofilms of K. pneumoniae were treated with meropenem at concentrations corresponding to release profiles of the PCL nanoparticles. Central venous catheter pieces were coated with the nanoparticles and evaluated against K. pneumoniae. Meropenem nanoparticles had negatively charged surfaces and measured 170 – 330 nm. Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated spherical and crystalline nanoparticles respectively. The nanoparticles had entrapment efficiencies of 55 – 75% and drug loading percentages of 3 – 4%. In our bioassays, meropenem was released from the PCL nanoparticles at varied concentrations for 7 days. Released meropenem was 100% effective against planktonic cells of K. pneumoniae whilst concentrations higher than 28.6 mg/L were effective against biofilms of the same bacterium. Catheters coated with meropenem-loaded nanoparticles inhibited bacterial growth for 24 hours. As such, we conclude that meropenem-loaded PCL nanoparticles are effective in killing K. pneumoniae planktonic cells and show antibiofilm potential against the bacterium.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

16. Effects of Home Based Upper Extremity Exercise in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
K Rekha, Vijayalakshmi A, D Samuel Sundar Doss, Vaiyapuri Anandh
Abstract
Background and Objective:  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. This study aim to determine the effects of home based upper extremity exercises in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Methods: Experimental study was performed with 30 COPD Patients, they were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly assigned to 2 groups. All the participants were explained about the study following which Chest expansion measurement was assessed using inch tape at 3 levels, Dyspnoea level was graded using Modified Borg scale, Wellbeing and activity of daily life score using CAT questionnaire was performed as a pre test and same tests were repeated as post test after the training session for a period of 4 weeks. Group A participants were taught to perform the exercise and asked to do at home for 5 days a week for total duration of 4 weeks. Group B – Control group was treated with thoracic mobility exercise, repetition -3sets/10rep and frequency -7days per week. Results: Group A chest expansion measurements at all 3 levels were improved in post test compared to pre test. And Group A is higher when compared with group B. Dyspnea score were reduced in Group A compared to group B. Wellbeing and activity of daily living score improved in both groups, Group A was higher compared to Group B. Conclusion: This study proven that home based upper extremity exercise are effective in improving chest expansion, reduced dyspnea and improved quality of wellbeing and activity of daily living.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016

17. Rapid Determination of Lipid Accumulation Under Sulfur Starvation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Microalga Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Younes Ghasemi
Abstract
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the most commonly studied model organisms in microalgal kingdom, is known to be a rich lipid producer. Here, a naturally isolated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain was cultivated phototrophically at Erlenmeyer scale in BG11 culture medium. After reaching to stationary growth phase, a sulfur limited regime was applied. The lipid content of C. reinhardtii microalga, was determined using Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIR) method in Erlenmeyer flasks in normal and sulfur starved conditions. After sulfur limitation the microalgal cells were significantly decreased (1.582 g L-1) in comparison with grown cells in sulfur rich medium (4.484 g L-1). The results indicate an elevated lipid: amide I in sulfur rich medium (1.66-fold) compared with sulfur rich medium. Gravimetric analysis of the total lipid contents, as a conventional method, confirmed that the lipid accumulation (36.98%) was due to elevated lipid biosynthesis.  The results open a new way to direct quantification of total lipids in more microalgal strains using FTIR as a reliable and robust method.

Abstract Online: 20- September, 2016