Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume7,Issue4

1. Aetiology and the use of Antibiotics in the Case of Acute Pharyngitis: A Review 
Kannan I, Beulah Edwin, Vincent Prasanna, Hemlata Katiyar VM, Elango Dhanapal
Abstract
Acute pharyngitis in one of the most common illness reported in high rate in an outpatient setup. The acute pharyngitis is caused due to infection by virus or bacteria. It is no clinical evidence that the bacterial illness and viral illness differ in their severity and duration. Hence the clinicians are put in difficulty in the selection of treatment modality especially the administration of antibiotics. However many research have proved that the adult pharyngitis is mainly due to virus. This review gives the picture of the aetiology and current treatment scenario of the acute pharyngitis.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

2. Histological Study of the Effect of Combination of Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Burm. F. Ness) and Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on Diabetic Rats and Its Acute Toxicity
Sisca Ucche, Cupi Marceila, Sudarsono, Agung Endro Nugroho
Abstract
Recently, ethanolic extract of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata [Burm. F.] Ness) and ethanolic extract of mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was combined as a new alternative herbal product. The aim of the study is to determine the potenty of the combination on histopathological changing in pancreas after destruction by alloxan, and the acute toxicity of this combination. Histopathological study of pancreas, the tissues was stained with hematoxillin-eosin (HE) and its insulin expression was identified using immunohistochemical study. This study used male Wistar rats divided into eight treatment groups that consist of control group, glibenclamide group, and six treatment groups (A. paniculata extract 200 mg/kgBB, A. indica extract 200 mg/kgBB, combination of A. paniculata and A. indica 200, 400, and 800 mg/kgBB). The method used for the acute toxicity test was based on the OECD Guideline 423. The study used female Wistar rats with an initial dose (starting dose) 2000 mg/kg BB and which was performed as a replication dose. Thus, an increased dose of 5000 mg/kg is necessary to evaluate the criteria of toxic symptomps/ clinical signs. In the study, the histological observation of pancreas with HE staining showed improvement from Langerhans islets destruction which was induced by alloxan in group that received single and combination extract treatment. Improvement of insulin contents after pancreas destruction by alloxan were markedly observed after treatment with this combination in dose-dependent manner. The results of acute toxicity test showed that on 14 day after administration of the combination, there is no one test animals experience death. The categories found in the OECD Guideline 423 indicate that the combination belongs to the 5 th category (LD50 cut-off> 5000 mg / kg BW) or unclassified.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

3. Hepatoprotective Activity of Canthium dicoccum In Isoniazid and Rifampicin Induced Hepatotoxicity
Bhaargavi Vuyyuri, Bhagyalakshmi A, Rajyalakshmi R, Jagadeeswari S
Abstract
Objectives: The present study was designed to study the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Canthium dicoccum (ECD) whole plant against the standard Silymarin in isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: ECD was administered orally for 21 days (150 and 300mg/kg body weight). Hepatotoxicity was induced by oral administration of INH (50mg/kg) and RIF (100mg/kg) on every 72hrs for a period of 21days. Silymarin (50mg/kg p.o) was used as standard. Liver function parameters were evaluated to test the activity of Canthium dicoccum. Sleeping time was measured by an intraperitonial injection of 40mg/kg Thiopental Sodium. Results: INH and RIF insult significantly increased the serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, T-CHO, T-BIL and significantly decreased serum T-PRO when compared to normal control group at P<0.05. Treatment with ECD significantly attenuated the INH and RIF induced elevated serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and T-CHO. Also the plant extract significantly improved the serum levels of T-PRO when compared to INH and RIF induced toxic group. The plant extract at 300mg/kg dose level proved to be comparable to the standard silymarin and is considered to be more active than silymarin in reducing the serum elevated SGOT levels and improving the serum T-PRO levels. Conclusions:  It can be thus concluded that Ethanolic Extract of Canthium dicoccum whole plant exhibited hepatoprotective activity against Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

4. Screening of L-glutaminase Producer and Optimization of Production Process by Taguchi Orthogonal Array
Vishal Anand, Quaisar Perween, Rati Kumari Sinha, Hare Ram Singh, Santosh Kumar Jha
Abstract
L-Glutaminase (L-glutamine amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.2) is an important enzyme due to its property to enhance the flavour of food and can also act as an anti-leukemic agent and in biosensors. L-Glutaminase can be produced by number of organisms like bacteria, fungi, yeast and including humans and animals. The objective of the present investigation is to qualitative and quantitative screening of potential L-glutaminase producers. Bacillus licheniformis was reported as the better  producer of L-glutaminase, which is then used for the further shake flask investigation. Taguchi design of experiemnt (DOE) was used to optimized the six factors viz. Carbon source, Nitrogen source, Salts, Incubation period, pH and Temperature. The maximum L-glutaminase activity was observed at dextrose (3 g/L), L-glutamine (5.5 g/L), MgSO4.7H2O (0.49 g/L), NaCl (0.4 g/L), KH2PO4 (3 g/L), CaCl2.2H2O (0.007 g/L), Na2HPO4.2H2O (5.5 g/L), pH 7.0 at 370 C. After the optimization 67.71% enhancement in L-glutaminase activity was reported.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

5. Management of Periodontal Disease with Doxycycline: An Update
Srithi Srinath
Abstract
To mange periodontal disease with the use of doxycycline drug.  An update to the present findings of doxycycline in managing periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is one of the most common microbial infections in adults. It is an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. There are two major types of periodontal disease: gingivitis and periodontitis. Periodontitis is characterized by general inflammation of the periodontal tissues. Antibiotics given orally and at standard doses have some limited applications for periodontal disease. They are typically given for an acute infection. Specific antibiotics used in periodontal disease include: Tetracycline antibiotics includes tetracycline hydrochloride, doxycycline, and minocycline are the primary drugs used. They not only have anti-bacterial actions but also reduce inflammation.Short-term use of standard-dose doxycycline is used for treating acute periodontal infections and for eliminating inflammation.Metronidazole in combination with tetracycline or amoxicillin may be used for severe and chronic periodontal disease. Several topical applications includes:Atridox is a doxycycline gel that conforms to the gum surface and then solidifies.PerioChip is a chip that is placed into the gum pocket after scaling. Periodontal disease when left untreated may cause cardiac diseases in systemic disorders. Hence this review helps in proper management of periodontal health.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

6. Formulation & Evaluation of Sustained Drug Delivery System Containing Metformin
Garad S. V., Jangme C. M., Somnathe N. D.
Abstract
Metformin hydrochloride is a Biguanides derivative, which is widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent in the management of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), in an initial dosage of 500mg & 850mg. Metformin is highly water soluble drug with bioavailability of 40 to 60% with high renal clearance hence the dose of 850 mg is insufficient to achieve therapeutic plasma concentration for long duration of time, so dosage regimen of twice or thrice a day is required. The present manuscript describes formulation of Meformin HCl sustained release tablet using few polymers. From in vitro drug release profile, formulation MVII showed better release profile i.e. 96.97% drug release at the end of 24 hours. This formulation was optimized and subjected for accelerated stability studies. The data obtained from the stability studies indicated that there is no much change in the release profile of the tablets after storing at 45ºC for 6 weeks.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

7. Phytochemical Screening of a Polyherb: Seeraga Chooranam
Mahalakshmi K, Subhashini E
Abstract
Herbal medicines are useful for healing and curing a variety of diseases from the ancient period. The phytochemicals present in the medicinal plants possess a defense mechanism against various diseases. Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plant sources. Seeraga chooranam of herbal origin was selected and investigated for its phytochemicals by subjecting it to the phytochemical screening. Based on the standard literatures seeraga chooranam was screened for the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, cardiac glycosides,  etc.,. Seeraga choornam is a polyherb composed of a variety of herbs. In this study phytochemical screening was performed using both solvent and aqueous extracts which showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and terpenoids in both the extract and absence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The presence of the phytocompounds ensured that this has medicnal value. Herbs has medicinal properties has medicinal properties which can be used to treat various diseases like diabetes, pneumonia, cardiac disease etc. The phytochemicals have a strong role like antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-viral, antibacterial and analgesic properties. In many developing countries, a large proportion of the population believe that traditional medicine has the potential to meet their health care needs.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

8. Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and their Relations to Chemotherapy in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Hatem A.El-Mezayen, Hossam Darwish, Maha Hasheim, Hatem A. El-Baz, Mie Afify Mohamed
Abstract
Objectives: Oxidative stress is one of several factors which contribute to the development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The aim of the study was an assessment of the activity of oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, before and one month after starting the specific cytotoxic regimen. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 146 adult patients who were diagnosed as non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma, besides 60 adult healthy persons served as controls. Their age ranged from 22 to 65 years, the protocol of chemotherapy was CHOP. All subjects gave written informed consent. Initially for both patients and control, serum MDA and SOD were measured and reported one month from starting specific cytotoxic drugs for the patient groups. Results: Before starting cytotoxic regimen, there was a highly significant rise in serum MDA concentration in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in comparison with control. After one month from starting cytotoxic regimen, there was a highly significant rise in serum MDA concentration and serum levels of SOD showed insignificant difference between NHL lymphoma patients before chemotherapy and controls, while the levels were significantly decreased in patients after one month of starting treatment compared to them before treatment and compared to controls. By comparing the period before and after starting cytotoxic regimen in patients with lymphoma, there was a significant rise in MDA and a significant reduction in SOD. Conclusion, patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were under great oxidative stress during cytotoxic regimen as manifested by a rise in MDA and a reduction in SOD on comparison to those of controls, these results suggest that chemotherapy destroys the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in the body serum level.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

9. Investigation of the Laxative Activity of Operculina turpethum Extract in Mice
Samuel O. Onoja, Gideon K. Madubuike, Maxwell I. Ezeja, Chidiebere Chukwu
Abstract
The study was aimed to investigate the laxative activity of leaf extracts of Operculina turpethum. The dried leaves of Operculina turpethum was successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and 70% methanol using cold maceration method. The resulting extracts were concentrated in hot air oven at 40 °C. The laxative activity of Operculina turpethum leaves was investigated using in vivo models; faecal consistency, intestinal motility and enteropooling in mice. Two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) of each extract was administered and castor oil was used as positive control. The treatment of the mice with the extracts and castor oil produced various degrees of wet faeces. The chloroform and methanol extract of Operculina turpethum produced a significant (P < 0.05) dose- and time-dependent increase in the percentage of wet faeces in the treated groups when compared to the negative control group. The extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in the intestinal motility in the treated mice when compared to the negative control. The treatment of the mice with the extracts did not produce any significant (P > 0.05) change in the intestinal content volume when compared to the negative control. In conclusion the Operculina turpethum extract showed a potent laxative activity and confirms its use for this purpose in traditional medicine
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

10. Simultaneous Determination of Nicorandil in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by HPLC Method
Emad Mahmoud Abd El-halim, Mounir Zaki, Alaa Amin, Hanaa Khater
Abstract
A rapid and accurate HPLC method was developed for determination of  Nicorandil in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was conducted on Agilent 1200  with DA detector; using  BDS column ; ACE, (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase was isocratic consisted of  Methanol : Phosphate buffer in ratio of (30 : 70 v/v) (buffer is composed of  6.8 gm potassium dihydrogen phosphate per liter  and was delivered to the system at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. An injection volume of 20 µl . The detection wavelength (λ max) was 262 nm . All assays were performed at ambient conditions. The calibration curve  in mobile phase was linear with correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.99999; over a concentration range of 5 – 20 mcg/ ml with a retention time of 3.19 minutes. . The percentage recoveries of Nicorandil were 98.83% to 101.71% ; respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be  1.06% The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for simultaneous determination of  Nicorandil  in tablets. The method described is quite suitable for routine analysis of tablets and for their dissolution quantitation.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

11. Antioxidant Capacities of Various Fruit Extracts from Three Varieties of Tomato and Correlation with Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Carotenoid Content
Irda Fidrianny, Stephanie Natalia, Muhamad Insanu
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant capacity of various fruit extracts from three varieties of tomato using two methods of antioxidant testing which were DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and correlation of total flavonoid, phenolic and carotenoid content in various fruit extracts of tomato with IC50 of DPPH and EC50 of FRAP antioxidant capacities. Extraction was performed by reflux using different polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. Antioxidant capacities using DPPH and FRAP assays, determination of total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content were performed by spectrophotometry UV-visible and its correlation with IC50 of DPPH scavenging capacities and EC50 of FRAP capacities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. Ethyl acetate fruit extract of larisa variety (LA2) had the lowest IC50 of DPPH scavenging capacity (0.14 mg/ml) and the lowest EC50 of FRAP capacity was given by ethyl acetate fruit extract of amala variety (AM2) 46.9 mg/ml. Ethyl acetate fruit extract of larisa variety (LA2) contained the highest total phenolic (6.27 g GAE/100 g), n-hexane fruit extract of larisa variety (LA1) had the highest flavonoid content (5.13 g QE/100 g) and the highest total carotenoid content 58.74 g BE/100 g. There were negatively and high correlation between total phenolic content in fruit extracts of amala and larisa varieties with their IC50 of DPPH scavenging activities and EC50 of FRAP capacities. All of fruit extracts from three varieties of tomato had linear result in DPPH and FRAP assays
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

12. Clinical Significance of Chemerin in Obesity and Metabolic syndrome in Children
Manal A. Shehata, Hanaa H. Ahmed, Enas R. Abdel Hameed, Enas Mokhtar, Amr S. Megawer
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide. Chemerin is a recently discovered adipokine that regulates fat formation and metabolism. This novel marker has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Thus, the focus of our interest was to evaluate the significance of circulating chemerin in obesity and metabolic syndrome in children. The study design was cross sectional, thirty obese children were enrolled in this study; 14 of them had the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome. Besides, 30 healthy sex and age matched subjects served as control group were included in the study. Serum chemerin level was quantified by ELISA. Subjects’ height, weight, BMI, BMI Z-score, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and lipid profile were simultaneously assessed. Serum chemerin level recorded significant increase versus the control group (424.2±61.0 vs 300.3+25, P = 0.000). Additionally, serum chemerin level was positively correlated with weight (r=0.4, p=0.02), height (r=0.4, p=0.05) and waist circumference (r=0.4, p=0.02).  In conclusion, the current research study provided clinical evidences for the role of circulating chemerin in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This could be beneficial against the development of their complications.
Abstract Online: 15-June-2015

13. Evaluation of Antitumor Potential of Luffa acutangula on Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma Treated Mice
Dashora N., Chauhan L. S.
Abstract
The objective of the present study is to explore the anticancer activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the Luffa acutangula in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line. Anticancer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Luffa acutangula was evaluated in EAC Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally. Both extracts at both doses were administered for 13 consecutive days. After 24 h of the last dose and then eighteen hours of fasting, the mice were sacrificed and antitumor effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight and hematological parameters of EAC bearing host. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed significant decrease in (p<0.0001) tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Haematological profiles such as red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin, and white blood cell (WBC) count reverted to normal level in treated mice. The results demonstrated that the extract has potent dose dependent anticancer activity comparable to that of cisplatin. Aqueous extract at both doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed potent anticancer activity.
Abstract Online: 23-June-2015

14.  Therapeutic Effect of Selected Natural Products in Gastritis Induced by Helicobacter pylori in Experimental Rats
Elseweidy M.M , Taha M.M , Younis N.N , Ibrahim K.S , Eldosouky M.A
Abstract
Gastritis induced marked cellular changes which vary according to histological characters and causative mechanism. We aim to assess the therapeutic role of amoxicillin, black seed oil, curcuminoids either individually or combined on rat model of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis. H. pylori gastritis was induced in rats, followed by administration of Amoxicillin, black seed oil, curcuminoids or their combination for four weeks. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured. Histopathological examination of gastric mucosa and immunohistochemical reactions for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine (NTR) and DNA fragmentation were also evaluated. Administration of black seed oil and curcuminoids individually for four weeks significantly decreased serum gastrin, IL-6 as well as gastric mucosal MPO and PGE2 and increased total pepsinogen activity compared to un-treated rats. Their combination significantly decreased serum gastrin, IL-6, gastric mucosal MPO and PGE2 while total pepsinogen activity demonstrated further improvement. Histological results demonstrated marked improvement in agreements with biochemical markers.  Amoxicillin-treated group demonstrated no significant changes regarding these biomarkers with moderate positive reaction for iNOS, NTR and DNA fragmentation. In conclusion,  Black seed oil and/or curcuminoids either individually or combined improved H. pylori-associated inflammatory and oxidative injury. However, amoxicillin has failed to induce significant effect.
Abstract Online: 23-June-2015

15. The Role of Anticoagulation Control on the Mortality Rate in Warfarin Treated Ischemic Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.
Aprillia Rahmadina, Abdul Gofir, Agung Endro Nugroho
Abstract
Stroke in atrial fibrilation patients can increase mortality risk which is a consequence of thromboembolic events. Thromboprophylaxis can be attained using anticoagulant such as warfarin. However, its administration must be controlled continously to minimize the bleeding. Anticoagulation control could be done by observing the International Normalized Ratio (INRs) with the target of 1.5 up to 2.0. An effective control of anticoagulation is expected to lower the mortality rate. In the study, we investigated the factors affecting the quality of anticoagulation control on warfarin-treated ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrilation, and its effect on the clinical outcome i.e. mortality rate. The study was conducted by using the case control method, in which the patients with the primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke and the secondary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation receiving warfarin therapy (n = 140). The percentage of the anticoagulation control was evaluated using INRs to categorize good and poor anticoagulation controls. Based on the multivariate analysis on the 140 subjects, it was found that the variables which were statistially related to the mortality rate in the hospital were incidence of sepsis (one of comorbidity) (OR = 6,721; 95% CI = 2,3-19,1; p = 0,000) and the use of aspirin along with warfarin (OR = 0,374; 95% CI = 1,1-0,9; p = 0,032). However, the anticoagulation control on the warfarin therapy did not significantly affect the mortality rate at the hospital for ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrilation (OR = 0,316; 95% CI = 0,6-4,3; p = 1,651). In conclusion, incidence of sepsis and the use of aspirin along with warfarin are two factors affecting to the mortality, however, poor anticoagulation control was not related to the mortality rate at the hospital for ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrilation using warfarin.
Abstract Online: 23-June-2015

16. Synthesis and Anticonvulsant Activity of Some Flavones Incorporated Hydrazide Derivatives
Neeraj Kumar, Lalit Singh Chauhan
Abstract
A series of novel flavones incorporated hydrazide derivatives was synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectral studies. The newly synthesized flavones incorporated hydrazides were screened for anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model in male wistar rats and compared with the standard drug phenytoin. Compound N’-(2-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)chroman-4-ylidene)-2-phenoxybenzohydrazide 3g was found to be most active compound as comparable to standard drug phenytoin. From the in-silico neurotoxicity study, the compound 3g was found to lack of neurotoxicity

Abstract Online: 23-June-2015

17. Therapeutic Uses of Vernonia cinerea A Short Review
Lakshmi Prabha. J
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate and systematically review the medicinal properties of the plant Vernonia cinerea and to analyse pharmocological, phytochemical and pharmacochemical activites of the plant extract. The objective of this study is to analyse the properties like anti-oxidant, anti-cholinesterase, anti-bacterial, anti-diarrheal, anti-helmintic, anti-tumour and anti-diabetic activities of various parts of the plant. Vernonia is a genus of about 1000 species of herbs and shrubs in the family Asteraceae. The family Asteraceae is well distributed in Indian flora, by its floral structure and chemical composition it is considered one of the most advanced family from all the dicotyledons. Some species are known as Ironweed. Some species are edible and of economic value. They are known for having intense purple flowers. Vernonia cinerea is a potential medicinal plant. Use of drugs for pain relief and other reasons may produce side effects which are harmful to the body. Thus finding medicinal plants with the minimal side effect as the drug may be highly beneficial.

Abstract Online: 23-June-2015