1. 5α-Reductase Inhibitors, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of 3βsubstituted amides of 17a-aza-D-homo-4-androsten-17-one. Manav Malhotra, Hemraj Heer, Rajiv Sharma, Richa Dhingra, T.R. Bhardwaj
The study reports the convenient and efficient synthesis of several new analogues of 3β-substituted amides of 17a-aza-Dhomo-4-androsten-17-one (11a-11d) from commercially available Diosgenin as the starting material. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. We herein report the 5α-reductase inhibitory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of these synthesized analogues in comparison to the reference drugs. The results from these experiments indicate that compound 3β-(2-(4-Chlorophenyl)acetamido)-17a-azaD-homo-4-androsten-17-one (11b) was found to be most promising analogue against 5α-reductase enzyme along with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity while, analogue 3β-(2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)acetamido)-17a-aza-D-homo-4- androsten-17-one (11d) found to be least active. The detailed 5α-reductase inhibitors, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds were reported in this communication
2. Prescription Pattern of Anxiolytic Drugs Used in Orthopaedic Patients: A Case Study of National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Uzondu, Akueyinwa l. E., Okafor, Onyeanwuna J.
Most orthopaedic injuries are caused by trauma which may require several surgical interventions. Such patients experience pains that may generate anxiety disorders. Anxiolytic drugs are Most orthopaedic injuries are caused by trauma which may require several surgical interventions. Such patients experience pains that may generate anxiety disorders. Anxiolytic drugs are essential in the management of cases where anxiety and insomnia are likely to be found. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prescription pattern of these anxiolytic drugs for orthopaedic patients in comparison with other prescribed drugs. The study also set out to determine which of the anxiolytics was prescribed most. The study was done retrospectively by evaluating anxiolytics prescribed in the patients’ medical folders at National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu, Nigeria, within 2000 and 2004, using WHO Prescription Indicator Manual. F- distribution statistical tool was used to compare the anxiolytics prescribed with antibiotics, haematinics and NSAIDs that were also prescribed for these patients. Results showed that anxiolytics were prescribed along with other drugs in the management of orthopaedic cases. It was aiso found that in the two orthopaedic clinics for in – and out- patients, diazepam was the highest prescribed anxiolytic (61.53%), followed by bromazepam (33.6%): lorazepam, flunitrazepam and nitrazepam were rarely prescribed. Anxiolytics are relevant in the management of orthopaedic cases, diazepam being the most prescribed anxiolytic drug, Prescription pattern of anxiolytics, Orthopaedic Hospital.
3. Antiseptics and Antibiotics Used in Regenerative Endodontics. Nabeel Ahmed, Prasanna Neelakantan
Contemporary endodontics and the future of endodontics are based on regenerative strategies. Success of these regenerative endodontic treatments depends on disinfection of the root canal system. Current research in endodontics focuses on identifying the optimal methods of disinfection of root canal systems to achieve predictable results in revascularization therapy. Although the use of sodium hypochlorite for disinfection is mandatory, additional intracanal medicaments are also required to realize this goal. This article reviews the antiseptics and antibiotics used for achieving disinfection of root canals for regenerative procedures.
4. Study the Hypoglycemic Effect of Crataegus Laevigata in Diabetic Rats Alaghawani W, Naser I
The background and aim: to investigate the effect of Crataegus laevigata ethanolic extract in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: streptozotocine (50 mg/ kg) was used to induce the diabetes mellitus in rats. Afterwards, the diabetic rats were divided into groups in which they were injected by increased doses of ethanolic extract (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 mg/kg). There was a groups given the standard oral hypoglycemic agent: Glipizide as reference to evaluate the effect of the extract. Indeed, oral glucose tolerance test was performed and the role of the previous extract was detected with comparison to Glipizide. Results: The extract significantly reduced plasma glucose and this effect was dose- dependent. The effect of Glipizide was generally more potent than that of extract. In oral glucose tolerance test, the extract (1200 mg/ dl) obviously enhanced the glucose tolerance in rats. Conclusion: The Crataegus laevigata has clear hypoglycemic effect but it should be further investigated and the active ingredients must be identified.
6. Oxidative Stress in Liver Diseases Nagy S. El-Rigal, Manal A. Hamed, Maha Z. Rizk
Oxidative stress corresponds to an imbalance between the rate of oxidant production and that of their degradation. The main biological targets of free radicals are proteins, lipids and DNA. Protein oxidation leads to loss of function or premature degradation in proteasomes. Lipid peroxidation, occurring mostly in the plasma membrane or the stratum corneum- the most superficial layer of the epidermis- alters the physical properties of cell membranes or the epidermis, and thereby their biological function. Oxidation of DNA can lead to gene mutation, and thus abnormal protein synthesis, alteration in gene expression, apoptosis and cell death. An oxidative stress is often associated to all kinds of diseases, although it is not always easy to determine whether it is a cause or a consequence of the observed condition. Liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, alcoholism and non alcoholic fatty liver were the main diseases that will be discussed in this work