1. RP-HPLC-PDA Method for the Determination of Paracetamol, Famotidine, Diclofenac Potassium and Chlorzoxazone in Bulk and Marketed Formulation Gurupadayya B M, Sirisha T, Sridhar S, Venkata Sairam K
A simple, specific and accurate RP-HPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol, famotidine, diclofenac potassium and chlorzoxazone in bulk and marketed formulation. For present study, a reversed-phase Altima C-18 column (150 mm * 4.5 mm i.d., particle size 5 μ) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH of buffer 6.6 adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) taken in a gradient program was used. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 270 nm. The mean retention times of paracetamol, famotidine, diclofenac potassium and chlorzoxazone were found to be 4.8, 6.6, 7.7 and 8.8 min, respectively. The method was validated following ICH guidelines including parameters like linearity, range, specificity, system suitability, accuracy, precision and robustness. The proposed method was successfully applied for the estimation of paracetamol, famotidine, diclofenac potassium and chlorzoxazone in combined tablet dosage form.
2. Synthesis and Characterization of 1,2,4-Triazole- Pyridine Hybrids as Potential Antimicrobial Agents Ahirwar J, Ahirwar D, Lanjhiyana S, Jha A K
A novel 1,2,4-Triazole-Pyridine hybrid derivatives was synthesized by the reaction of nicotinohydrazide with carbon disulfide to yield potassium-3-pyridyl-dithiocarbazate (I). This was further cyclized with ammonia solution to yield 5-mercapto-substituted 1,2,4-Triazole-Pyridine hybrid (II). This was finally reacted with different substituted benzyl derivatives to produce 1,2,4-Triazole-Pyridine hybrid derivatives (III). Purity of the derivatives was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and melting point. Structure of these derivatives was set up by determining infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Further, the synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against the two gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli (MTCC 443), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424)) and two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96), Streptococcus pyogenes (MTCC 442), and antifungal activity against the Aspergillus niger (MTCC 282), Aspergillus clavatus (MTCC 1323), Candida albicans (MTCC 227) by cup-plate method. Out of all synthesized derivatives, two derivatives i.e.3-(5-(3-nitrobenzylthio)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine and 3-(5-(3,5-dinitrobenzylthio)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine showing more potent antibacterial activity while 3-(5-(2,4-dinitrobenzylthio)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine showing more potent anti fungal activity.
3. Evaluation on Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead in the Hair Sample as an Indicator of Autism for Children Mohamed Abousa Gaza, Lukman Hakim, Akhmad Sabarudin, Sutiman Bambang Sumitro
Adequate knowledge is required to determine the toxicity degree of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury in the human body causing adverse effects and chronic diseases like autism for kids. Microwave-assisted digestion, hair sampling using HNO3 solution combined with H2O2 hydrogen peroxide and the measurement by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for the element determination. A study conducted on hair samples of 40 individuals ranging from 5 years – to 17 years (school age) living in Malang in 2017 aimed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) across autism and normal children technique (ICP-MS). The results of replicate analysis shows the following mean concentrations (µg/g), Autsim cd 4.34 ± 0.06, Pb 44.75 ± 0.56 Hg 1.70 ± 0.078 and Normal Cd 2.63 ± 0.04, Pb 48.49 ± 0.80 Hg, 1.54 ± 0.13, indicating a higher concentration compared to the standard certified value GBW07601. The higher concentration of all the heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) occurred in both normal children and children with autism disease. The comparison noted that cadmium percentage was higher than elemental mercury in children with autism and vice versa in normal children. Yet, the concentration of both elements was higher in children with autism. Nonetheless, lead was found higher in normal children. It is also supported by several studies confirming the relationship between organic mercury and nervous system including autism disease. On the other hand, in this study, we found no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg,) between the normal children and children with autism disease.