International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

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1. Screening of Functional Groups, DNA Quantification and Determination of Antimicrobial Potency of Corallocarpus epigaeus Tubers
Saranya N, Rangabhashiyam S, Rubini D, Sivaranjani C R
The work involves isolating genomic DNA from the dried tubers of Corallocarpus epigaeus (Ce), which is a medicinal plant, belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide extraction method. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is done for the quantitative determination of DNA isolated. Antimicrobial activity of Corallocarpus epigaeus is checked for microbes Salomonella typhi, Streptococcus luteus, Klebsiella, Aspergillus niger using the extract prepared from dried tuber with ethanol and benzene and the zone of inhibition was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration for specific microbes has been determined. Preliminary Phytochemical screening was done to determine the constituents present in the tuber. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique is performed to determine the functional groups present in the tuber. The results revealed the presence of important antimicrobials and also support the continued sustainable use of these plants in traditional systems of medicine.

2. Insilico Targeting Biosynthetic Pathway of Aflatoxin Synthesis Using the Secondary Metabolites of Azadirachta indica
Lavanya  Gunamalai, D.Vanila
Neem tree was botanically known as Azadirachta indica, the most traditionally used plants for many treatments in India. This tree is either called as the goddess of medicine because each part of the plant was medicinal value and contains active ingredients, thus commercially exploitable many siddhars on earlier days used neem for treating many unknown diseases. In this current study neem secondary metabolites are targeted in the biosynteic pathway of aflatoxin. The aflatoxin, which is also a mycotoxin inhibited by many synthetic drugs, but due to some side effects neem compounds has been used to inhibit the production of aflatoxin in fungus. Hence, by performing molecular docking studies and results that are obtained from docking shows that the interaction with neem compounds among 15 compounds, only Astraglin shows the  better interaction with the target than the standard drugs.

3. Successful treatment of facial vitiligo with honey bee, Allium cepa and Avena sativa combined to sun light exposure: A case clinical trial
Zouhir Djerrou
A 34 –year- old man was affected by facial localized vitiligo with no family history of this disease. After 17 months of treatment with conventional drugs with unsatisfactory results, the patient has adopted a new therapeutic protocol including topical application of a formulation of honey bee, Allium cepa L. juice and Avena sativa L. stem decoction. Also, a daily sun light exposure of 15-20mn was practiced. A complete re-pigmentation of white patches was obtained in a period of 11 months with no adverse effects. The prolactin value was 7.06 ng/ml and cortisol was 12.36 μg/dl with 17.14 g/l of sericIgG which reflect a stabilization of stress state of the patient. The tested complementary therapy was safe and has successfully re-pigmented the different vitiligo lesions. Further studies are needed to confirm this stimulation of melanocyte’s proliferative activity by the present formulation.

4. Health Burden of Job Stress among Junior Resident Doctors
Metwally F M, Mahdy E M E , Ahmed H H, Abdul-Rahman M A
The goal of the present study was to elucidate the impact of job stress on some biochemical indices of junior resident doctors at Ain Shams University Hospitals. Forty-eight junior resident doctors at Ain Shams University Hospitals (28 males and 20 females) in four departments (Obstetrics & Gynecology, Neurosurgery, Urology and Cardiolgy) as a case group and twenty-four non-resident doctors (11 males and 13 females) as a control group were enrolled in the current study. The choice of departments was on the bases of high job stress according to number of work hours/week. The participants ranged from 26 to 28 years of age with a mean of 27 years. Serum levels of cortisol, immunoglobulin G (IgG), highly-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP-hs), cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were estimated for all participants. The results showed that serum cortisol, IgG, CRP-hs, Chol, TG, and LDL were significantly higher in junior resident doctors, while HDL was significantly lower in junior resident doctors when compared with junior non-resident doctors. The present study shed light on the health hazards of job stress due to increasing working hours among junior resident doctors.

5. Assessment of Ovarian Reserve After Ovarian Cystectomy by Laparotomy Versus Laparoscopy
Mohamed D Abdel -Maksoud,  Nervana Samy, Maha Hashim, Abeer Elkhayal,  Hisham Fathy, Ihab Gomaa
The objective of this study was to compare the impact on ovarian reserve between laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy and laparotomic ovarian cystectomy. Sixty-four women with ovarian cysts whether unilateral or bilateral, endometrioma and nonendometrioma were included; 32 of them underwent laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy and the other 32 underwent open ovarian cystectomy (laparotomy). Preoperative blood samples: obtained to measure the level of preoperative of AMH one week before the surgery and one month postoperatively. Histological analysis of the removed specimen for counting the number of follicles that by their removal might affect the ovarian reserve. The results showed Both laparoscopic and open ovarian cystectomy were found to adversely and significantly affect the ovarian reserve measured by AMH but no statistical significant difference found between the two approaches as regard the neither AMH difference nor number of follicles found in the cyst wall. Meanwhile laparoscopic group found to have significantly lower BMI. In subgroup analysis; endometrioma group found to cause more pronounced decrease in ovarian reserve than nonendometrioma group although not statistically significant while pre and postoperative AMH found to be significantly lower in endometrioma group. Statistically significant positive correlation was detected between AMH change in one hand and number of follicles in cyst wall, rASRM scoring system and preoperative AMH level in the other hand. Moreover, statistically significant positive correlation between number of follicles in cyst wall and cyst dimensions was recorded.Based on the previous findings, the surgical approach can cause      definite harm to the ovarian reserve with no privilege recorded of laparoscopy over laparotomy as regard conservation of ovarian reserve. Other factors rather than type of surgery would determine the extent of this damage.

6. The Effects Of Washing Practices And Storage On Antioxidant Activity Of Some Selected Fruits
Rastkari Noushin, Farajvand Nasrin, Alimohammadi Mahmood, Yunesian Masud, Samadi Nasrin
Effects of washing practices using a commercial detergent or disinfectants alone or in combination with each other on the radical-scavenging activity and reducing power of the fresh fruits were examined. The fresh fruits were subjected to a triple wash treatment of washing in tap water for mud removal, washing in water containing a detergent (dishwashing liquid) or disinfectant individually, and rinsing in tap water. The results show that there were significant variations in antioxidant activity across fresh fruits (ranging from 15.02 to 57.15 mmol/L Trolox equivalents per kg of fresh weight). The antioxidant capacities of the all samples were soaked in Kanz Disinfecting Liquid showed lowest antioxidant activity (P<0.05). Pretreatment with detergent before washing with calcium hypochlorite or benzalkonium chloride showed significant reductions of antioxidant activity (ranging from 8 to 27%, P< 0.05). Levels of total antioxidant activity showed different changes throughout the storage period at 4 ˚C depend on storage duration.

7. Fertility  Enhancing  Effect  of  Saponin  Rich  Butanol Extracts  of  Tribulus  terrestris  Fruits in Male Albino  Rats
Hemalatha S, Rajeswari Hari
The fertility ability of saponin rich butanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris fruits against 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p dioxin (TCDD) induced infertility in male albino rats were examined. The rats were injected with 40μg TCDD/kg for one week. After ensuring the oligospermic condition the animals were divided into 5 groups, namely, Group I (Normal control) was administered only with the vehicle (2% CMC suspension). Group II served as negative control received TCDD alone. Groups III-IV was treated with SFTT at 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively. Group V served as standard and treated with clomiphene 10mg/kg. Drugs were administered daily using oral dosing needle continually up to 28 days. The administration of the SFTT for 28 days significantly (P<0.01) increased the relative weights of the total body weight as well as reproductive organs. The SFTT caused significant (P<0.01) increases in sperm motility, sperm count and sperm morphology. The SFTT treatment also reduced the levels of FSH and LH .It subsequently increased the level of testosterone values. The haematological and biochemical parameters were also investigated which revealed that there is a significant difference in the creatinine and serum cholesterol values.  These results suggest that SFTT might be a potential agent offering protection against the development of TCDD-induced infertility.

8. Galangin Ameliorates Inflammatory Changes in Pancreas: A Study in Rats Administered Ethanol  and  Cerulein
Geetha. A, Fatima.C.A
The study was conducted to investigate whether galangin(GA), a natural flavonoid of the rhizome Alpinia galanga  modulates the components of NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi protein complex which mediates inflammation  in rats subjected to experimental pancreatitis by ethanol(EtOH) and cerulein administration. For the study, adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 and 2 served as control and received normal diet for 5 weeks. Group 3 and 4 received an ethanol containing isocaloric diet and cerulein (20μg/kg body wt.) intraperitonially for the last 3 weeks of the experimental period. In addition, group 2 and 4 were administered 100μg/kg body wt. of galangin in corn oil orally by intragastric intubation for the last 3 weeks of the experimental period. The mRNA expression of the NLRP3 components apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), pyrin (PYD), and caspase-recruitment (CARD) domains, caspase-1 and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were evaluated by real time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) technique. Histopathological examination of pancreatic tissue was also carried out. A significant increase in the mRNA expression of  ASC-CARD, ASC-PYD, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 were observed in EtOH and cerulein treated rats  when compared to control rats. The mRNA expression of these genes were substantially downsized in the galangin supplemented (group 4) rats. The results were supported by histological observations. The anti inflammatory effect of galangin might be due to its modulating effect  on the interaction of ASC-CARD and ASC-PYD domains which activate caspase-1 to promote proinflammatory cytokines activity. Also the observations suggest that galangin downregulates the proinflammatory cytokine production thereby prevents inflammation and minimizes tissue damage.

9. Evaluation of Statin Effect on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Goal Attainment In Patients With Myocardial Infarction
Yuanita Purnami, I Dewa Putu Pramantara, Lukman Hakim, Agung Endro Nugroho
According to NCEP ATP III update 2004, patients with myocardial infarction have been classified as very high-risk patient. The panel then recommends an optional LDL-C goal <70 mg/dL for this patients. This study evaluated the extent to which this recommendation can be attained by the use of currently available statin therapies. The study was a descriptive analytical observational study conducted retrospectively through medical records and laboratory data of myocardial infarction patients aged ≥18 years who received statin therapies. The patients were monitored within 6 month since diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction at cardiac clinic of a hospital in Yogyakarta Indonesia between 1 January 2009 and 30 September 2013. Statistical analysis was done to determine whether statin therapy within 6 months can attain a significant reduction in LDL-C level and bivariate analysis to determine factors associated with LDL-C goal attainment. A total of 141 patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction were included in this study. The statin prescribed was mostly simvastatin (50.4%). Most patients experienced much change in their treatment regimen (62.4%) with an average change in the treatment regimens per patient was 1.5 ± 0.8 times. The most change in treatment regimen was atorvastatin 40 mg/day to simvastatin 10 mg/day (18.4%). Regimen for patients who their treatment remain unchanged within six months was simvastatin 20 mg/day (23.4%) followed by atorvastatin 40 mg/day (7.1%). Overall, statin therapy within 6 months after the patients were diagnosed with AMI, produce significant reduction in LDL-C levels by 19.5% (p<0.0001) with final LDL-C level was 109.24±37.18 mg/dL, while initial LDL-C level was 132.22±40.61 mg/dL. However, thereduction did not occur in all patients, only 109 patients (77.3%) experienced reduction in their LDL-C levels while 32 patients (22.7%) experienced anincrease in their LDL-C levels. Only 18 patients (12.7%) can attain LDL-Cgoal <70 mg/dL and a factor associated with the attainmentis adherence in taking statin drug consistently.

10. Prevalence of Depression Among School Going Adolescents in South India
Jayanthi P, Thirunavukarasu M
Background: Depression among adolescents has emerged as a major mental health problem. Psychiatric morbidity among school samples of adolescents was found in about 29% of girls and 23% of boys with depression being the most common disorder. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depression among school going adolescents. Material and Method: A school based cross sectional survey was carried out at higher secondary schools in South India. Results: A total of 2432 school going adolescents were screened and 25% (612) students with depression were confirmed by the Psychiatrist. Conclusions: Adolescent depression has to be identified at the earliest and providing prompt interventions will prevent future psychiatric illnesses.

11. Phytochemical screening and Potential in vitro Anti-bacterial activity of Aegle marmelos Leaf extract against Gram negative Pathogenic Bacteria
Hanumantappa Bherigi Nayaka, Ramesh L Londonkar
To investigate the phytochemical and antibacterial potential of leaves of A. marmelos against isolated human pathogenic gram negative bacterial strains from four different hospital isolates. Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Aqueous extracts at three different concentrations (50, 75 and 100 mg/mL) were evaluated. Agar diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Amino acids, Steroids, Flavonoids, Phenols and tannins in all four extracts but Saponins, Gum and Mucilage are absent in Petroleum ether and Chloroform extracts and they are present in Methanol and Aqueous extracts.   All extracts of the leaf demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethanol extract has revealed the highest inhibition rate comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Results of this Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies strongly confirm that the leaf extracts of A. marmelos have some primary and secondary metabolites and they could be effective antibiotics, in controlling gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

12. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Anxiolytic Activity Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Solanum Surattense Leaf In Swiss Albino Mice Model
Amdadul Huque, Sujit Biswas, Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Jamilur Rahman Bhuiyan, Md. Harun ur Rashid, Afrien Jahan
The aim of the study to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic effect of the methanolic extract obtained from Solanum surattense leaves in mice to authenticate the scientific base of traditional use. Methanol were used to extract the phytochemicals. Separation of compounds was done through gravity column chromatography and Observation of TLC Plate for methanol extract was performed with Naked Eye, Under UV light and applied iodine vapor depending on Rf value for the marking of Fluorescent spots. Methanol extract of Solanum surattense leaves was selected for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic activity. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory were measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test and xylene induced ear edema test. Open field test (OFT), Elevated plus maze (EPM), Hole cross test and Hole board test were the screening tests used to assess the anxiolytic activity on mice. The crude dried methanol extract was prepared in doses of 100 and 200 mg / kg body weight administered orally to the mice. Extract of Solanum Surattense statistically showed noticeable analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory activity against control. But this extract did not ensure anxiolytic and tranquilizing activity except  at high doses(2x) on total ambulation criteria during open field test and at low doses (1x) on close arm in elevated plus maze test against control. The report from studies hints the traditional uses of this plant as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Further investigation including specific compound isolation of extract can claim the scientific basis as analgesic and anxiolytic agent.

13. Stability Indicating Method Development and Validation of Ranolazine Hydrochloride in Bulk and its Tablet Dosage Form by HPTLC.
Khedkar A. N., Veer S. U., Rakh M. S., Rao J. R.
A novel stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatography HPTLC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of Ranolazine Hydrochloride in bulk drugs and in pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of degradation products generated from forced degradation studies. The present study is completed by using precoated silica gel aluminium plate 60 F – 254, (20 × 10 cm) with 250 µm thickness, as stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of chloroform : methanol : toluene (5 : 1 : 1 v/v/v). The detection was carried out at the wavelength of 273nm. RAN was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis (acid, base, neutral), oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation. Degradation was observed for RAN in acid, base and in oxidation conditions. The drug was found to be stable in the other stress conditions attempted. The degradation products were well resolved from the main peak. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, range, precision, repeatability, LOD and LOQ, robustness, specificity, and recovery. The analysis of the marketed product and the forced degradation studies prove the stability‐indicating power of the method.

14. Synthesis of Some New Azetidinones Derived From Heterocyclics and Their Antimicrobial Activity
Kumbhar S. P., Mayur Y. C., Poul B. N., Waghmare P. V.
This present work deals with the synthesis, characterization and biological activity of some new Azetidinones derived from heterocyclics. Different aryloxy acetic acd were obtained from different substituted or unsubstituted phenols upon treatment with chloro acetic acid in presence of sodium hydroxide. The aryloxy acids were converted to respective acid chlorides by treating with thionyl chloride in benzene. The acid chloride was straight away used for next step. The Schiff bases were obtained by reaction of 4-amino benoic acid with substituted aldehydes in acetic acid. Then Schiff bases on reaction with acid chloride gave different azetidinones. The final derivatives of the Azetidinones were obtained by reaction with 2-amino pyridine moiety which gave different Azetidinones derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity by paper disc diffusion method. All compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against Bacillus Pumilus, Bacillus Subtilis Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli. The potency of the synthesized compounds was determined against standard drug Ciprofloxacin by measuring the zone of inhibition and calculating the MIC.

15. A Study on Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis Among Rural Paediatric And Adolescent Population
Ramam Sripada, Venkata Ramudu Ragiri, Santhoshi Lakshmi Gamini, Jyothi Bonam, Divya Bharathi  Datla, Vidya Bhargavi Kodamanchili.

Back ground:
Nocturnal enuresis is the third most stressful life event in school going children next to parental fights and divorce of the parents. It is the 2nd most common chronic condition behind allergic disorder. Involuntary urination after the age at which bladder control usually occurs, while an individual was asleep can be considered as nocturnal enuresis. Objective: To assess the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis among the rural paediatric and adolescent population. Methods: This was a cross sectional study and individuals of age 5-18 years were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Individuals with less than 5 years of age and individuals who were under the treatment with diuretics and general medical conditions like seizure disorder, diabetes, spina bifida were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 328 individuals were screened for nocturnal enuresis. Among them, 42 individuals were found to be suffering with enuresis and the prevalence was observed to be 12.8%. Out of these 42 individuals, 29 (69%) were paediatrics and 13 (31%) were adolescents. Among the enuretic individuals, 8 (19%) were having the family history of enuresis. Majority (35.7%) of the enuretics were having the frequency of enuresis ≥7 times per week. Conclusion: Females were more prone to enuresis than males especially in this rural area. More than 1/4th of the primary school going children was observed to be enuretic. Family history of enuresis played a significant role in our study which may influence the occurrence of enuresis in their future generations too. It is the responsibility of the health care professionals to educate the parents and the children about enuresis. We should educate them in such a way that enuresis is not the fault of the children or the caregivers. If our counselling succeeds it results in enhancing the parental relationship with their children.

16. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils From Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. Et Henry
Prasanna Anjaneya Reddy L, Narasimha Reddy B, Venkata Ratnam K, Bhakshu MD L, Veeranjaneya Reddy L

To study the phytochemical profile, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) leaf, stem bark and gum resin samples. Phytochemical profiles of the three essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, antimicrobial activity was performed against two Gram positive, two Gram negative and two fungal species by using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were assayed by micro dilution method. Further, antioxidant capacity of three oil samples were determined by DPPH scavenging method. Gas chromatographic analysis of BO three essential oil (EO) samples revealed that 30 compounds were identified in leaf oil and 25 compouds in each were identified in stem bark and gum resin EOs. The results showed that 11 compounds i.e. α –amarphene, δ-cadinene, caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllene, β-farnesene, α-humulene, ledol, γ-murrolene, β-myrcene β-pinene, and (-)-zingiberene were common compounds in three oil samples. Three essential oils showed good antimicrobial activity against test pathogens. Among the tested pathogens, Candida rugosa found to be most sensitive organism to leaf, stem bark and gum EO samples, while Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis was most resistant organism to the test oils. Further, the oil samples showed concentration dependent DPPH reducing capacity. The present study revealed that, the essential oils of BO exerts beneficial effects to inhibit human pathogenic microorganisms and as a source of natural antioxidant compounds

17. In-Vivo Acute Dermal Toxicity Study of Formulations on Rabbits
Shetkar M. A., More R. R., Kumbhar S. P., Aute A.A., Poul B.N

To develop an Aceclofenac transdermal gel with a capability for topical drug delivery and the purpose of this study is to obtain scientific information regarding health hazards that may result from a acute dermal exposure to the agricultural chemical for providing the basis of laying down the measure of safety protection in application.Methods: Aceclofenac gel formulations, incorporating various permeation enhancers, were prepared using carbomer as a gelling agent. The formulations were examined for their in vitro characteristics including viscosity, pH and drug release as well as in-vivo pharmacological activities.Results: The formulations containing 5 % of either Propylene glycol as permeation enhancers gave drug release patterns comparable to that of the reference product. Propanol increased the apparent viscosity of the test gels to the same extent as that of the reference. Drug release from the formulations fitted best to the Higuchi model. A significant in vivo analgesic effect was produced by the test formulations and the effect was superior to that obtained with the reference product.Conclusion:Aceclofenac gel preparations containing propylene glycol respectively, exhibited pronounced analgesic activity and could be further developed for topical delivery of Aceclofenac.

18. Evaluation of anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. against IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cancer cell line.
Pawan Kaushik, Sukhbir Lal Khokra, A.C Rana, Dhirender Kaushik
To study the anticancer activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol extract of Pinus roxburgii Sarg. by SRB assay method on IMR-32 Human neuoblastoma cancer cell line. Anticancer activity of different extracts of Pinus roxburgii Sarg. was performed on IMR-32 Human neuroblastoma cancer cell line by the Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC) Mumbai, India. Out of the four extracts petroleum ether and chloroform extract have showed anticancer activity on IMR-32 Human neuroblastoma cancer cell line. Cell line were grown in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 2mM L-glutamine. Present study implicit the observation that petroleum ether and chloroform extract of the plant Pinus roxburghii Sarg. showed a promising anti-cancer activity against only one cell line and may be active against the other cell lines. Further, all these plants extract need to be screened against different cell lines apart from the selected cell line to confirm the activity.


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