1. Measuring Effects of Pharmacists’ Training on Smoking Cessation Using Mystery Shoppers Kristina S A, Prabandari Y S, Widayanti A W, Thavoncharoensap M
Background: Pharmacists’ role in smoking cessation is unique as they are easily to be accessed by public. Supporting evidences revealed that trained pharmacists improved their self-efficacy and ability in smoking cessation counseling. This study aimed to investigate whether pharmacists able to perform smoking cessation counseling at 4 weeks after training. Methods: Trained mystery shoppers instructed to play ready-to quit smoking scenario, visited 241 pharmacists (consisted of 127 pharmacists in training group and 114 pharmacists in control group). Scenario of 5A’s smoking cessation counseling was presented by mystery shoppers (MS). MS documented the counseling process using standardized observation tool immediately after pharmacy visit. MS acceptability survey was delivered via postmail after MS visited pharmacies. Results: In training group, nearly all of pharmacists (90%) asked patient whether he smokes, 80% of pharmacists advise patient to quit and assess patient readiness to quit. However, less than half of pharmacists (46%) perform in assisting patient by facilitating quit process. Only 25% of pharmacists able to set quit date and discuss key issues, and 15% of pharmacists offered follow up counseling. A significant different between intervention and control group in assisting patients at 4 weeks post-training follow up showed the effectiveness of training (P<0.001). Conclusions: Pharmacists able to retain the skills in ask, advise, and assess readiness to quit within 4 weeks after training, but need more advance training to improve their skills in assisting and follow up counseling. The efforts to nationally disseminate the training are steps forward to enhance pharmacists’ involvement in tobacco control.
2. Assessment of Effectiveness of Selected Relaxation Strategies on Stress and Coping among the Mothers of Differently Abled Children. V Valarmathi, Vijayalakshmi R
The mother plays a vital role in parenting, which has more challenges and consequently greater stress in bringing up their disabled children. The aim of the research is to assess the effectiveness of selected relaxation strategies on stress and coping among mothers of differently abled children, and association of post test level of stress and coping with their selected demographic variables. The research was quantitative in nature, and adopted quasi-experimental [one group pretest-posttest] design which involved 60 mothers with purposive sampling technique conducted at Little Flower Convent at Nungambakkam, Chennai. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit the demographic variables,and three points Likert scale was used to assess the level of stress and coping. After four weeks intervention of selected relaxation strategies[deep breathing for10min, and progressive muscle relaxation for 20min] the analysis revealed that with respect to stress the ‘t’ test value 13.2 which was significant at P = 0.005 level and coping the ‘t’ test value 10.7 which was significant at P = 0.001 level. The findings proved that the selected relaxation strategies i.e deep breathing and progressive muscle relaxation are very effective method to reduce stress and increase coping of mothers of differently abled children.
3. A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Home Based Aerobic Training, Muscle Strengthening and Stretching Exercise on Self Management Among Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) at Selected Villages in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. T.Suseelal, K R John, Alexandra Brown, A Judie, V Christopher Amalraj
Context: Demonstration of exercise among individuals with diabetes mellitus include both aerobic and muscle strengthening, stretching exercise training although some studies have proved this exercise combination. Objective: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of aerobic training, muscle strengthening and stretching exercise training on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) among individuals with diabetes mellitus. Design: The design was a Single blinded true – experimental study using a quantitative approach. Setting : Maraimalai nagar and 9 villages at Mamandoor, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu India. Participants: 400 (200 study + 200 Control) patients who had been undergoing treatment for DM were selected by purposive sampling. HbA1c levels of 6.5 % or higher were enrolled in the 3 months exercise program me between August 2013 and September 2014. Intervention: 200 participants were assigned to the study group, 200 in control group and engaged in muscle strengthening and stretching exercise training daily for 30 minutes for 3 months with nutritional counseling every 15 days. Main outcome: Change in HbA1c level. Secondary outcomes include Anthropometric measurement. Results: The study revealed the overall post interventional result showed from the baseline compared to control group there was an absolute mean change in walking exercise and stretching exercise (p<0.01), hemoglobin A(1c), (HbA1c) at (p<0.01), and waist hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.01). There was an improvement in exercise pattern, HbA(1c) and WHR among patient with diabetes mellitus after the stretching exercise training program. Conclusion: As hypothesized the study concluded that Community based care is the ideal one to develop specific intervention, to manage DM, to maintain the healthy condition and to prevent complications.
4. Protective Effect of Cynodon dactylon Aqueous Extract in Streptozotocin Diabetes Induced Liver Damage in Rats – Histological Study Madhankumar S J
The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon aqueous extract (500mg/kg) in the liver tissue of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Thirty male albino wistar rats were divided into five groups. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg). Cynodon dactylon aqueous extract were administered via oral gavage (500mg/kg) for 45 days. Liver damage caused by diabetes was evaluated by an increase in the levels of intracellular hepatic enzymes activity. Histopathological observation showed marked disturbance in the hepatic cellular structure, when compared to normal control liver sections. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase and also showed demonstrable histopathological changes. The observed histopathological changes correlated with the biochemical results, confirmed the protective effect of liver tissue in streptozotocin diabetes induced liver damage in Wistar rats.
5. Effectiveness of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Package on Knowledge Regarding Impact of Watching Television Among Children at Selected School, Vellore Ganga Devi T P, M Ramya Rathi Devi
A child is the gift of God to the world. In today’s world an exponential advancement has taken place in electronic media. Television in twenty-first century is watched by all age group of children including infants. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of IEC package on knowledge regarding impact of watching television among children. Quantitative approach and Quasi- experimental (One group pre and posttest) research design was adopted for the present study. The variables studied are independent variable, dependent variable and demographic variables. The independent variable was IEC package on impact of television watching, dependent variable was knowledge on impact of watching television. The study was conducted in Jain Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Kalinjur, Vellore District. The sample size for the present study was 100. Proportionate stratified sampling technique was adopted to select the samples for the study. Structured self-administered questionnaire which consists of 30 multiple choice questions was used to collect the data. The results in pretest revealed that majority 85% of the children had inadequate knowledge and 15% of the children had moderately adequate knowledge and in posttest 61% of children had adequate knowledge, 39% of the children had moderately adequate knowledge and none of the children had inadequate knowledge after IEC package.
6. The Association of CAG Trinucleotide Repeats of Androgen Receptor Gene with the Incidence of Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer in Javanese Population Ahmad B.Utomo, Aulamiam, Yunia Sribudiani, Dwi Agustian, Muhammad A Widodo, Basuki B Purnomo
Androgens play an important role for prostate cells proliferation, survival and development of prostate cancer (PCa). Androgen ablation therapy is a common procedure to treat PCa. However, in most of the cases PCa relapse after 18-24 months of therapy and develop into castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Polymorphism in Androgen Receptor (AR) gene has been known as a risk factor for PCa and CRPC. This study aims to evaluate the association of the length of CAG repeats within AR with the incidence of CRPC in Javanese population, in Indonesia. Forty two patients enrolled in this study, genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, PCR was performed to amplify exon 1 of AR and genotyping of CAG repeats was performed by Sanger Sequencing. Of the 42 patients, 17 were excluded from the study due to incomplete data after 9 months of observation. Of the 25 remaining patients, three of them (12%) experienced tumor-relapse and developed CRPC phenotype after hormonal therapy. The mean of PSA levels were 277.5 and 240.7 mg/dL for CRPC patients and non-CRP patients respectively (p =0.886). We observed that the CRPC patients tend to have shorter CAG repeats (22) than those of non-CPR patients (24) (p=0.878). Whereas the mean of Gleason score of CRPC patients (7) were slightly higher than those of non-CRP patients (6,3) (p=0.859). Although not significant, Kaplan Meier curve analysis showed that the CAG repeats lower than 22 repeats had a better survival compared to those who have CAG repeats longer than 22. In conclusion, there was no significant association between the lengths of CAG repeats with the incidence of CRPC in Javanese population, however we observed that CRPC patients tend to have shorter length of CAG repeats, lower Gleason score and higher PSA levels pre-ADT (androgen deprivation therapy) compared to those of non-CRP patients.
7. Evaluation of the Antibody Response and Uptake of Ca-Alginate Microspheres Containing Model Antigen After Oral Immunization Hariyadi D M, Hendradi E, Kusumawati I, Maindra H M C, Azzahra F
Oral delivery system has numerous advantages; however some peptide and protein drugs may occurs degradation by gastrointestinal enzyme when given orally. Ca-alginate microspheres containing model antigen Ovalbumin were prepared to protect ovalbumin from degradation by forming microspheres to enhance immune response and uptake of microspheres by lymphoid tissue in mice’s intestine. Ovalbumin-alginate microspheres were produced by aerosolization technique using Na-alginate polymer and CaCl2 cross-linker. To increase stability during storage, microspheres were dried with 5% maltodextrin as lyoprotectant. To observe immunological evaluation, hemagglutination test by measuring antibody titre was conducted for all groups compared to vaccine product which administered via intra muscular route. In vivo uptake study of microsphere in mice’s villi and Peyer’s patches at different time series were performed by labelling microspheres with rhodamine B. IgG titre immune response of Ca-alginate microspheres containing ovalbumin increased when compared to blank microspheres and ovalbumin solution. BSA had similar titre as ovalbumin-alginate microspheres. In addition, lyophilized ovalbumin-loaded alginate microspheres with 5% maltodextrin produced the highest IgG titre. Interestingly, freeze-dried ovalbumin-loaded Ca-alginate microspheres showed equal immune response as intra muscular vaccine product. For uptake study in the intestine, it resulted both ovalbumin-alginate microspheres with and without 5% maltodextrin were able to be taken up by villi at 6 hours after given orally and taken up further by villi and Peyer’s Patches at 7 to 10 hours. In conclusion, ovalbumin-loaded Ca alginate microspheres with 5% maltodextrin indicated that the Ca-alginate microspheres entrapping ovalbumin have potential to enhance immune response and facilitate the uptake.