1. Pharmacological and Phytochemical evidences for the extracts from plants of the genus Vitex – A Review A K Meena, Uttam Singh, A K Yadav, B Singh, M M Rao
The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention diseases is continuously advancing. In fact, the origin of many therapeutic substances from the genus Vitex. The genus Vitex contains 270 species distributed around the world. It is an interesting source of potential bioactive molecules, as iridoids compounds, flavonoids, diterpenoids derivatives, phytosteroids, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, Hepatoprotective activity , analgesic and antihistamine ,Anti-implantation, antiasthmatic activities. This work reviews the pharmacological evidence of extracts of plants from the genus Vitex, giving an overview of the most studied biological effects and the known phytochemical composition. Although more studies are necessary, Vitex exhibits proven potential to become of important pharmacological interest.
2. Chronotropic Systems; An Emerging Trend In Drug Delivery For Pulsed Release In Chronopharmacotherapy Mayank Nagar, Sanjay Singhai, V. S. Chopra, Namrata Gautam, Piyush Trivedi
Advances in chronobiology, chronopharmacology and requirement of an appropriate technology to deliver the drug at specific time and site resulted into novel type of drug delivery systems, ‘chronotropic or pulsatile drug delivery systems”. The principle rationale behind designing these delivery systems is to release the drug at desired time as per the pathophysiological need of disease, resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. As the name suggests, these systems are meant for chronopharmacotherapy, treatment of those diseases that are caused due to circadian changes in body. These systems are developed when zero order drug release is not desired. Pulsatile drug delivery systems are designed to release certain amount of drug within a short period of time, immediately after a predetermined lag time. Diseases wherein chronotropic systems are promising include asthma, peptic-ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, attention-deficit syndrome in children and hypercholestemia etc. Various approaches like capsular systems, systems with different type of barrier coatings, stimuli sensitive Pulsatile systems and externally regulated systems are summarized in this article. The current article focuses on diseases requiring chronotropic systems, approaches to design them, recent technologies for chronotherapy and currently available marketed formulations.
3.Review on Cyperus rotundus – A Potential Herb A K Meena, A K Yadav, U S Niranjan, Brijendra Singh, A K Nagariya, Mansi Verma
Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of diseases and their therapies. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant extracts based on traditional medicine. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus which are used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach, bowel disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cyperus rotundus contains essential oils, terpenes, flavonoids, b-sitosterol, and ascorbic acid. The main terpenes in Cyperus rotundus are cyperenes, which include sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.
4. Hepatoprotective effect of an ayurvedic formulation Prak-20 in CCl4 induced toxicity in rats: results of three studies Vaidya Balendu Prakash, Arun Mukherjee
Prak-20 is a proprietary herbo-mineral ayurvedic formulation routinely used for years in the clinical practice of the first author in the treatment of liver ailments. Prak-20 is a judicious combination of nineteen herbs and Mandoor Bhasma. Three experimental studies were carried to evaluate its hepato-protective properties. In the first experiment, Prak-20 was compared vis-à-vis Liv52 in CCl4 challenged Wister rats. The second study was a single blinded study of Prak-20 in CCl4 challenged Wister rats. The third experiment was conducted to note the effect of different doses of Prak-20 in CCl4 challenged albino rats. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), serum aspartate transaminase (AST), along with liver histology was done in all animals at the completion of the first two studies. There was no significant elevation of ALT, AST and ALP levels despite CCl4 exposure in Prak-20 treated animals. Similarly, the histology studies revealed that all animals of the treatment group had regenerating hepatocytes and no necrotic and degenerative changes were noticed in any animal. In the third experiment, ALT and AST levels were studied after 24 and 48 hours of experiment. There was 54 and 37 percent decrease in ALT, AST levels in CCl4 plus Prak-20 (1.8 gm/d/rat) treated animals, respectively, as compared to CCl4 treated animals. Prak-20 treated animals also had minimum necrotic changes after seven days. Based on the findings of aforesaid experiments which were carried at three centers, it may be concluded that Prak-20 is a potent hepato-protective herbo-mineral ayurvedic formulation. Further studies are required to understand its mechanism of action.
5. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Symplocos racemosa Roxb Vijayabaskaran M, Yuvaraja KR, Saravanakumar M, Abhenaya K.
Development of new therapeutic drugs needs assay systems to evaluate the toxicity potential of the drugs early in the drug discovery process. In vitro cell-based cytotoxicity assay is an easy and cost effective tool for hit ranking and lead optimization at the early stage of drug discovery. The present study is intended to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic study of the bark of Symplocos racemosa Roxb (Family: Symplocaceae). The Ethanolic Extract of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In pharmacological screening the cytotoxic activity of EESR using 3 human cancer cell lines [i.e. Breast Cancer (MCF7), Colon Cancer (HT29), Liver Cancer (HepG2)] were evaluated with MTT assay method. The result of EESR showed potent cytotoxic effect on HT29 cell line, moderate in MCF7 cell line and less cytotoxic effect on the HepG2 cell line.
6. Pharmacognostic Investigation and Authentication of Potentially Utilized Fruit Spondias mangifera (willd) Muhammad Arif, Sheeba Fareed
Spondias mangifera Willd (Hog-plum) a native plant of Indo-Malaysia is best known for its fruits, commonly used in culinary preparations such as curries, condiments, jams, sherbet in countries where the tree grows naturally. Green fruit is pickled in brine which is rich of minerals, acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins, peptides and reducing sugars. The fruit is aromatic, astringent, refrigerant traditionally used to give tone and treatment of rheumatic articular and muscular pain. It is given in preventing vomiting and in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea. This study deals with the pharmacognostical evaluation and some potential application of its fresh/dried fruits which includes macro and microscopic studies, determination of physicochemical parameters of the extract using TLC fingerprinting.
7. Effect of Combination of Surfactant and Super Disintegrating Agent on In-vitro Disintegration and Dissolution Release Profile of Medroxyprogestrone Acetate Tablet Jain A K, Kakde A, Jain C P, Meena M K, Gaur K
The effects of selected surfactants and superdisintegrants on the disintegration behavior of selected model drug with varying combinations of excipient were evaluated. All formulations were made with fixed disintegrant concentration and equal drug load using a model formulation. Tablets were made by wet granulation and were compressed to equal hardness. In-vitro disintegration time and dissolution studies were carried out in dissolution media specified high performance liquid chromatography method. The use of Crosscarmellose sodium (Ac-di-Sol) significantly improved the disintegration time and dissolution of the drugs in the model formulation with or without surfactant, when compared with the other formulation. Crosscarmellose sodium (Ac-di-Sol) with combination of surfactant and disintegrating agent can be effectively used as a tablet disintegrant to improve the disintegration time and dissolution of either soluble or poorly soluble drugs.
8. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Metoprolol Tartrate Using Natural Superdisintegrant Raghavendra Rao N. G, Thube Ketan, Sumanji Bala
Metoprolol tartrate is effective β-blocker which is having antianginal properties and used in the treatment of myocardial infarction. Oral bioavailability of metoprolol tartrate is around 40 %. In present work an attempt has been made to prepare Fast dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate by direct compression method using different concentrations of plantago ovata mucilage as a natural superdisintegrant. Drug compatibility with excipients was checked by FTIR and DSC studies. The values of pre-compression and post-compression parameters evaluated were within prescribed limits and indicated good free flowing property. In all the formulations, friability is less than 1 %, indicated that tablets had a good mechanical resistance. Drug content was found to be in the range of 99 to 101 %, which is within acceptable limits. Hardness of the tablets was found to be in the range of 2.40-2.90 kg/cm2 , thickness was found to be in the range 4.30-4.85 mm. The formulations F4 and F5 shows less in vitro dispersion time 29, 16 sec respectively with rapid in vitro dissolution within 12 mins. In vitro dispersion time decreases with increase in concentration of natural superdisintegrant. No chemical interaction between drug and excipients was confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. The stability study conducted as per the ICH guidelines for three months and the formulations were found to be stable. The results concluded that mouth dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate showing enhanced release rate may lead to improved bioavailability and effective therapy by using plantago ovata mucilage as natural superdisintegrant.
9. Design and Characterization of Controlled Release Matrix Tablets of Stavudine Ranjit Kumar P, Suresh V Kulkarni, Vinod R, Sandeep HN, Someshwara Rao B, Ashok Kumar P
The investigation was concerned with design and characterization of oral controlled release matrix tablets of Stavudine in order to improve efficacy and better patient compliance. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using various proportions of polymer HPMC K 100M alone or in combination with polymer Ethyl cellulose. The granules were evaluated for angle of repose, loose bulk density, tapped bulk density and compressibility index, shows satisfactory results. Compressed tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, content of active ingredient, thickness, friability, hardness and In vitro dissolution studies. All the formulation showed compliance with Pharmacopoeial standards. The in vitro drug release study revealed that Eudragit preparation was able to sustain the drug release for about 9 hours (98.54 % release), but the Combination of HPMC K 100M with Ethyl cellulose sustained the drug release for 12 hours (75.32 % – 98.12 % release). The release data was fitted to various mathematical models such as, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, First-order, and Zero-order to evaluate the kinetics and mechanism of the drug release was found to be diffusion coupled with erosion.
10. Pharmacognostic Studies on the Leaf of Ventilago Maderaspatana Graetn Syeda Sanobar, Sandhya S, Vinod K R, David Banji, Rao K N V, Narender Prasad D, Nema R K
The history of herbal medicine is extricably interwined with that of modern medicines. Many drugs listed as conventional medications were originally derived from plants. The plant Ventilago maderaspatana is commonly known as Red creeper. It is widely distributed through out the Indian forests. Traditionally it is used as stimulant, diabetes, scabies, tonic, skin disoders, fevers, dyspepsia. The whole plant is used for the treatment of asthma, jaundice, anorexia, spleenic disorders and Piles. In the present work Pharmacognostical standardization has been developed for the proper identification of the drug. The evaluations like microscopical and proximate studies were performed. The results obtained for the microscopical studies like T.S, powder analysis, leaf constants and fibre length and width measurements enables to compare an authentic material with any given sample of the drug. Various quantitative analysis like moisture content, ash values, extractive value can be set as parameter conforming the identity, quality, purity of the Ventilago maderaspatana.