International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. Optimization, Production, and Partial Purification of Thermostable a-Amylase Produced by Marine Bacterium Bacillus sp. NRC12017
Ebtsam M El-Kady, Mohsen S Asker, Saadia, M Hassanein, Eman A Elmansy, Fawkia M El-Beih
Amylase biosynthesis was illustrated under stress circumstances of high temperature and high salinity in aerobically cultivated culture of a newly isolated moderately thermophilic bacterium of spore-forming Bacillus sp. NRC12017 in medium containing starch, peptone and yeast extract. Maximum yield (18.41 U/ml) was took place at pH 6.5 with 200 µl inoculum size at 45°C and an incubation time of 3 days. The ideal volume of the fermentation broth was found to be 15 ml in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask, supplementation of starch at 2.5% and peptone plus yeast extract at 0.7% brought about the greatest production of α-amylase. Two fractions of α-amylase activities, designated FIII and FIV, were refined from culture filtrate utilizing ammonium sulfate (60 and 80%) and showed the main band at 30 KDa. Both fractions had the highest activity at 250 µl starch in a reaction mixture and pH 6.0-7.0. FIII and FIV showed that a temperature of 50 and 55°C and a reaction time of 20 and 30 min were the best available conditions for their activities, respectively, both fractions were stable up to 65°C and the activity was decreased drastically to 3.22 and 3.26 % when heated at 70°C. Concerning pH stability, a broad range of pH stability (5.0-11.0) was obtained by FIII and FIV.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9581

2. Potential Role of Zamzam Water in Some Chronic Diseases in Rats
Amal S Abdel-Azeem, Adel-Elsayed Mubarak, Yahya Abd-Elmonem Abd-Elhady, Asmaa Gaber Mohammed Badawi
Water from holy zamzam is consumed by many Muslims in the world due to its beneficial role for the health of human beings. Therefore the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of zamzam water in diabetes mellitus, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats as well as to determine the chemical analysis of this water. Fifty six male albino rats weighting (150±5gm) were divided into four main groups and each group was divided into two subgroups a and b, one administered tap water (Tw) and the other subgroup administered zamzam water (zw). The 1st main group was normal rat (-ve control), the 2nd group was diabetic (induced by alloxan 150 mg/kg b.w.), the 3rd was nephrotoxic (induced by gentamicin 100 mg/kg b.w.) and the 4th group was hepatotoxic by carbon tetrachloride (2ml/ kg b.w.). The experiment lasted after four weeks. Zamzam water significantly decreased serum glucose, total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and elevated HDL- cholesterol. Moreover the liver and kidney markers were also improved in the groups that treated with zamzam water relative to its control taking tap water. Zamzam water has a protective role against hazardous effects of diabetes mellitus, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats.
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9582

3. Evaluation of  Antifungal Activity of Calvatia Craniiformis and IverMectin as Novel Alternative Therapies for Aspergillus Niger Associated Acute Otitis Media with Special Refer to SocioDemographic Factors Among Rural Children of Diyala Province-Iraq
Ghassan H Jameel, Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy
Objectives are to determine antifungal activity of Ivermectin and Calvatia craniiformis as a novel alternative therapy for aspergillus niger associated acute otitis media (AOM) among rural children of Diyala province; correlation of sociodemographic factors with frequency of infection. Ear swabs taken from 58 infected children and cultured  on  Sabouraud  dextrose agar  for  7-14  days .Macroscopic and microscopic criteria used for  diagnosis of A.niger .High isolation rate for A.niger (27.59%) among children of (4-6) years with significant difference between  age groups ( p value 0.039); genders ( p value 0.004);house status(p value=0.018);family size (p value =0.00006334) and month of infection (p value=0.000). A.niger infection  negatively correlated  with patients age (p value =0.039), family economy and  house status (p value =0.000),family size (p value =0.000). Alcohol extract of C.craniiformis (100mg, 200mg, 400mg, 500mg, 600mg, 800mg and 1000 mg) and ivermectin (0.5%,1 % and 2%) restricted the growth of A. niger after 3 days .Significance difference reported between all concentrations except 100 mg  and 200 mg ; 600 mg  and 800 mg. Significance difference in inhibitory activity   between concentration 1%  and 2%,0.5% and 2%   of Ivermectin respectively. Conclusions: A.niger infections positively correlated with family size and inversely  with age and family economy. The growth of A  niger significantly restricted by  alcohol extract of C.craniiformis and Ivermectin in concentration dependent manner. The powerful concentration was 1000mg, for C.craniiformis and 2% for Ivermectin. Thus, C.craniiformis and Ivermectin consider a novel antifungal agents that can be used in clinical practice for treatment of A.niger associated otitis media that  represents a clinical problem in children and need serious attention from clinicians.
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9583

4. Formulation and Evaluation of the Sustained Release Tablet of Ketorolac Tromethamine Using Natural Polymer as an  Extended Releasing Agent
Gadhave M V , Deokar Rutuja V, Jadhav S L, Gaikwad D D
Sustained release tablets of Ketorolac Tromethamine were formulated using Aloe vera Gel Powder as extended drug releasing agent. The tablets were evaluated for preformulation studies like angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and physical characteristics like hardness, weight variation, friability and drug content. In-vitro release of drug was carried out in phosphate buffer solution pH 6.8 for twelve hours. All the physical characters of the formulated tablet were found within the acceptable limit. The tablet with Aloe Vera gel powder in Batch-F3 exhibited greater drug release than other batches. It is proved from the dissolution profile of Ketorolac Tromethamine, that Aloe Vera gel powder possess the drug release retarding ability.
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9584

5. Evaluation of Protective Effect of Tagetes erecta Against Mercuric Chloride Induced Nephrotoxicity
Prabhu Narain Saxena, Brijender Bhushan, Renu Singhal
The toxicity of various forms of mercury to the living organisms is well documented. Mammalian kidney is the main site of decomposition of inorganic mercury as well as the target organ for its toxicity in majority of the animals including human beings. Present study has been aimed to investigate the role of Tagetes erecta (family-Astereacea) as a possible modifier of mercury induced renal damages. Experimentation was conducted on one hundred female albino rats, divided into five equal groups, each group again sub-divided into four sub-groups having five rats each: Control group- Orally administrated distilled water only. T. erecta flower extract treated group-10mg/kg b. wt./day for 1, 7, 14, 21 days was administrated orally. Mercuric chloride treatment groups-A dose of 0.926 mg/kg b.wt. for 01 day, 0.132 mg/kg b.wt. for 7 days, 0.066 mg/kg b.wt. for 14 days and 0.044 for 21 days was administrated through oral route.Oral administration of T. erecta flower extract followed by mercuric chloride treatment for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days.Oral administration of Mercuric chloride followed by T. erecta flower extract administration for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days.These animals were then sacrificed after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days treatment respectively. Controls were also run respectively. Mercuric chloride intoxication resulted in pathological alterations in the kidney of albino rats, such as degradation of glomerulus, proximal and distal tubules. Combined pre and post treatment of T. erecta with mercuric chloride has been found to reduce the pathological alterations in the kidney. Thus, the results from the present study suggest that T. erecta can modify the renal damages against mercuric chloride induced toxicity.
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9585

6. Effect of Imperatorin in Neuropathology of Parkinson’s Disease: An In Silico Study
Krishnapriya Madhu Varier, Sumathi Thangarajan, Arulvasu Chinnasamy
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the dopaminergic neurons loss in the midbrain. Even though there are some drugs in the market to ease parkinsonian symptoms, an accurate drug to prevent or cure the disease is still unknown. This study is an attempt to estimate in silico; a bioactive plant fucocoumarin Imperatorin; for its ability as an anti-PD drug, using Autodock 4.2, Pre-ADMET and molinspiration tools against the antioxidants involved in neuropathology of PD, keeping amantadine as a positive control. The molecules selected for the study are Cyclo- Oxygenase 1 (COX-1), Homo-Oxygenase-1(HO-1), NRF2-Keap1, Lipo-Oxygenase 1(LOX-1), Phospholipase A2 (pA2), DJ-1 and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The reliability of the 3 Dimensional (3-D) structures generated were confirmed using WHATIF Server. The study predicted Imperatorin as a potent anti-PD drug, being good inhibitors of COX-1, HO-1 and LOX-1, having less human toxicity and better ability to cross Blood Brain-Barrier (BBB).
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9586

7. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Leaf Extract of Volkameria inermis
Lavanya Krishnadhas, Santhi R, Annapurani S
Nanoparticles are gaining interest in biomedical applications due to its importance such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-cancer agents. Conventional methods for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles involves toxic reagents which produce harmful by-products and are hazardous to the environment. To overcome these limitations, green synthesis of nanoparticles was established. Eco-friendly methods using plant extracts are gaining popularity due to the abundance of raw materials and the production of non-toxic by-products threatening to the environment. Moreover, the nanoparticles synthesized from the plant extract are cost-effective. In addition, nanoparticles produced by green synthesis methods produces synergetic effect where both the nanoparticles as well as the natural bioactive constituents of the plant influence the biocidal properties. Different methods namely heating in water bath, microwave oven and exposure to bright sunlight were adopted for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plant extract based synthesis of silver nanoparticles was eco-friendly and shows an alternative promise in bio-medical applications and it undertakes the negative effects of synthetic drugs.
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9587

8. Effect of Hylocereus Polyrhizus Rind Extract Toward Interleukin-1β, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression, Endometriosis Implant Area
Yanuar Eka P, Hendy Hendarto, Widjiati
Retrograde menstruation lead to I Kappa B Kinase (IKK) fosforilation in peritoneum macrophage and cause secretion of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin1β then stimulate endometriosis cell to produce Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor which lead to increasing of endometriosis lession seen as endometriosis implant area.  Cytokine secretion was inhibited through prevention of NF-κB activation by dragon red fruit rind extract (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The aim of this reserach is to know the effect of dragon red fuit rind extract with 0,25; 0,5; and 1 mg/g bodyweight dosage toward IL-1β, VEGF expression and implant area in endometriosis mice model. The design of this experiment was randomized post test only control group design. Endometrios mice model were made in 14 days and split into two group, positive control group and treatment group after two week negative control group and postive control group were given Na-CMC 0,5% solution consequetively, and treatment group were given dragon red fruit extract with different dosage. Signification number for IL-1β is p<0,05, signification number for VEGF is p<0,05, and implant area signification number is p<0,05. Administration of dragon red fruit rind extract can decrease IL-1β, VEGF, and implant area.
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9588

9. Synthesis and Structural Elucidation of Aminoacetylenic Derivatives of 7-Methoxy- 2-Naphthole as Antimicrobial Agents
Abu-Safieh Rana, Muhi-Eldeen Zuhair, Alsarahni Aseel, Al-Kaissi Elham
A new series of 7-methoxy-2-[4-(t-amino-1-yl)oxy]-naphthalene derivatives; 7-methoxy-2-{[4-(2-methylpiperidine)but-2-yn-1-yl]oxy}-naphthalene (RZ2), 7-methoxy-2-{[4-(2,6-dimethylpiperidine)but-2-yn-1-yl]oxy}-naphthalene (RZ3), 7-methoxy-2{[4-(piperidine)but-2-yn-1-yl]oxy}-naphthalene (RZ4), 7-methoxy-2-{[4-(pyrrolidine)but-2-yn-1-yl]oxy}-naphthalene (RZ5), 7-methoxy-2-{[4-(N-methylpiperazine)but-2-yn-1-yl]oxy}-naphthalene (RZ6), 7-methoxy -2-{[4-(hexamethyleneimine)but-2-yn-1-yl]oxy}-naphthalene (RZ7) were synthesized and screened in vitro as potential antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial activity were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MIC, MBC and MFC). RZ2, RZ5, RZ6 and RZ7 showed the highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus with MIC value 62.5 µg/ml, compounds RZ2, RZ4, RZ5, and RZ7 have the highest antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis with MIC vale 62.5 µg/ml, RZ3, RZ6 have the same antimicrobial activity with MIC value 125µg/ml, compounds. RZ4, RZ5, RZ6 and RZ7 have the highest antimicrobial activity against E. coli with MIC value 125 µg/ml, all compounds have the same MIC value against P. aeruginosa (125 µg/ml). RZ2, RZ4, RZ5, RZ6, RZ7 showed the highest antifungal activity with MIC of 62.5 µg/ml. In conclusion, the synthesized compounds showed good antimicrobial activity and promising potency against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi.
doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i8.9589

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