1. Retrospective Drug Utilization Evaluation Among Patients of Respiratory Disorders
Shalini Rawat, Yogesh Joshi
Respiratory disorder is a pathological condition affecting the organs and tissues of respiratory tract. The study was retrospectively carried out among patients of respiratory disorders in a tertiary care hospital of Dehradun to evaluate drug utilization pattern. A total of 143 patients were included in the study reflecting 54.55% males and 45.45% females. Majority of respiratory disorders belongs to the age group of 65-75 years (29.37%) while age group ≤25 years contributed minimum (4.20%). Study showed that respiratory disorders were higher among unemployed as well as uneducated peoples contributing 33.56%. Social habits reflected that 34.26% patients were smoker, 32.86% patients were oral tobacco users and 13.95% patients were alcoholic. A sum of 1230 drugs was prescribed among all patients under study and average number of drugs per patients was found to be 8.6 that reflect the concept of polypharmacy. Most commonly prescribed drugs were antibiotics (28.53%) followed by decongestants (0.48%) as least prescribed drug category. Among all drugs prescribed, 63.82% was prescribed as monotherapy and remaining 36.18% was prescribed as combination therapy. Due to high value of average number of drugs per patient, problem of concern was polypharmacy which requires the control through rational prescribing practices. The drugs prescribed were mostly recommended and also confirm to the rational prescribing practices in the respiratory disorder treatment.

2. Role of MIRNA-155 And -10B as Biomarkers of Breast Cancer in Egyptian Women
Amr K S, Ali O S M, Afify M, Abd-Allah R M
Breast cancer is a common form of cancer among women globally. The potential role of circulating miRNAs as cancer biomarkers relies mainly on their high stability and their capacity to reflect tumor status and predict therapy response. The aim of the study was to find the role of miRNA-155 and -10b in breast cancer Egyptian women. The study enrolled 30 pathologically confirmed breast cancer women beside, 30 apparently healthy age-matched women, comprised the control group. Relative expression of miRNA-155 was (37.2 ± 7.8) and for 10b (28.6 ± 6.8) in BC patients compared to the control subjects (p value < 0.0001). MiRNA-155 was more sensitive (sensitivity: 100%) and specific (specificity: 90.9%) compared to miRNA-10b which exhibits sensitivity and specificity (95.8%) and (86.36%) respectively. Serum PDCD4 and cyt c were significantly increased in BC group ((p value < 0.0001). Plasma miRNA-155 and -10b may be used as early diagnostic markers of BC in Egyptian women.

3. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Fractions from Garcinia latissima miq. Stem Bark Methanol Extract
Ambarwati N S S, Elya B, Malik A, Hanafi M, Lestari K,Puspitasari N, Sari A, Tarigan R J, Omar H
Objective. This study aimed to get complete information about the antioxidant and antibacterial against B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus activities of the fractions from G. latissima Miq. stem bark methanol extract. Methods. Fractionation was performed by column chromatography. The antibacterial activities of the fractions from Garcinia latissima Miq. stem bark were assayed by inhibition zone technique, bioautography, and minimum inhibition concentration. The antioxidant activity were evaluated using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) methods. Results. Stem bark methanol extract had higher antioxidant activity (% inhibition = 95.68%) than ethyl acetate extract and n-hexane stem bark extract of G. latissima Miq. The stem bark methanol extract obtained ten fractions. The greatest of inhibition zone diameter against B. subtilis (ATCC (the American Type Culture Collection) 6633) and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) was fraction G (7.83 ± 0.46 mm and 7.43 ± 0.15 mm). The highest antioxidant activity fraction by DPPH method and FRAP method was fraction G. Phytochemical screening showed that fraction G contained flavonoid and tannin. Conclusion. The results obtained reveal that the fraction G of stem bark of G. latissima Miq. methanol extract possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus and antioxidant activity.

4. Bone Turnover Markers in Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Effect of Bisphosphonate Treatment: First Egyptian Study
Nazim W S, Temtamy S A, Sayed O,  Otaify G A, Ibrahim M M, Aglan M S, Gouda A S
Purpose: This report studies the changes in bone turnover markers in Egyptian OI patients and the effect of bisphosphonate treatment on these biomarkers. Methods: Twenty-six OI patients, and 30 controls were included. Age range of patients was 6.22 ± 3.72 years, while age range of controls was 11.1 ± 3.36 years. Serum calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, 25(OH) vitamin D, 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D in addition to bone formation and degradation markers including: osteocalcin and procollagen type I N propeptide and urinary helical peptide, N-telopeptide, isomerized and non-isomerized C-telopeptide, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were measured at baseline, 6 months and 12 months of bisphosphonate treatment Results: All biochemical measurements except parathormone showed no significant difference. Bone formation markers and type I collagen degradation markers showed significant differences. Conclusions: Biochemical measurement of serum calcium is recommended in patients receiving bisphosohonates. Bone formation markers and markers of type I collagen degradation are valuable for monitoring the effect of bisphosphonate treatment in OI patients.

5. A  study to Assess the Mother’s  Awareness on Child Abuse in Maraimalai Nagar.
T Sujatha, V P DHIVYA, M Padmakala
INTRODUCTION: Child abuse is the physical, sexual and emotional maltreatment of the child. Child abuse is any activity that is done forcefully against the child. AIM: The main aim of the study was to assess the awareness on child abuse among mothers in Maraimalai Nagar. METHOD: Non experimental descriptive research design was adopted to assess the level of awareness on child abuse among mothers. 100 mothers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected by using non probability convenient sampling technique. Structured questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and awareness regarding child abuse among mothers. The Study was conducted at  Maraimalai Nagar. Reliability of tool was established by split half method. RESULTS: The findings depicted that majority 38% mothers had inadequate knowledge among child abuse, 62% mothers had moderately adequate knowledge  and none of the mothers had adequate knowledge . CONCLUSION: Most of the situation, the mothers ignore to take preventive measures where their children could be a victim of child abuse. Thus, we affirmed the need for making mothers aware about child abuse and how it can be prevented.

6. Prescribing Patterns of Drugs In Pregnant Women Among Outpatients and Inpatients in Obstetrics & Gynecology Department
Neelam Begum, Vamsi Krishna G, Khalida S K
A Prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the prescription pattern in pregnant women. Attending Antenatal In &Out Patient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing the antenatal care In &outpatient department case papers of 230 random pregnant women. The prescription pattern was assessed and the drugs were classified based on the US FDA Risk Classification. Out of 230 prescriptions, only 177 prescriptions had drugs other than iron, folic acid and calcium lactate. In this study most of the drugs prescribed falls under category B (26.6%) ,  a fair number of drugs falls under category A (16.60%)  and  C (16.60%) and a few drugs falls under category D  (6.66%). No drugs belonging to category X were prescribed. The present study reveals that the drug use  during pregnancy in and around Bapatla region were minimal and the most of the drugs were prescribed by their generic names. Prescribing by generic name is known to reduce the cost of drug treatment, rationalized drug therapy and avoids confusion.

7. A Review of Microballoons: An Advance Technique for Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System
M S Kawade, Ashwini V
The purpose of writing this review on microballoons is to accumulate the recent literature with a special focus on the novel technological advancements in floating drug delivery system to achieve gastric retention. Microballoons (Hollow microsphere) promises to be a potential approach for gastric retention. Microballoons drug-delivery systems are based on non-effervescent system containing empty particles of spherical shape without core ideally having a size less than 200 micrometer. Microballoons drug delivery systems have shown to be of better significance in controlling release rate for drugs having site specific absorption. They are gastroretentive drug-delivery systems, which provide controlled release properties. The advantages, limitation, methods of preparation of hollow microsphere, applications, polymers used in hollow microspheres, characterizations of microballoons and formulation aspects with various evaluation techniques and marketed products are covered in detail.