1. Schistosomiasis Vaccine: Research to Development
Sanaa A. Ali, Manal A.Hamed
Due to their worldwide importance for human and animal health, schistosomes are in the focus of national and international research activities. Schistosomiasis is a major health problem and despite decades of research, only one effective drug, Praziquantel is currently available. Recent expansion of sequence databases on Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum has permitted a wealth of novel proteomic studies on several aspects of the organization and development of the parasite in the human host. Several proteomic studies in schistosomes have been performed in the past five years in an attempt to identify proteins involved in crucial processes for the parasite biology. Integration of proteomic data with those generated by microarrays is permitting a change of paradigm for the proposal of new targets for schistosomiasis treatment.
2. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Edible Mushroom, Lentinus edodes in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice
Saiful Islam, M Moyen Uddin PK
Consequences a cure for diseases and infections using herbal medicine are primordial approach. The present study aimed at investigation of anti-hyperglycemic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of edible mushroom, Lentinus edodes, in alloxan induced diabetic Swiss Albino Mice (SAM). There are a few unequivocal studies to authorize in-vitro anti-diabetic activity of edible mushroom. This prospective study was designed to comprehend the hypoglycemic properties of edible mushroom on the diabetes mellitus. Seven groups of SAM consisting of each group with five male SAM were used in this experiment and diabetes in each SAM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 180 mg/kg alloxan excepting group-VII (G_VII). The group-I (G_I) served as a negative control and received a daily intraperitoneal injection of normal saline solution (1 ml / 100g of 0.9 % NaCl, V/W), and group-II (G_II) also assisted as positive control receiving a daily intraperitoneal injection of metformin (3.33 mg/Kg), and the subsequent groups of SAM namely group-III(G_III), group-IV(G_IV), group-V(G_V), and group-VI (G_VI) were received mushroom extract/daily by using intragastric feeding tube. The ethanolic extract of Lentinus edodes at the dose of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg /kg body weight was administered orally once a day to the groups of G_II, G_IV, G_V, and G_VI for 3 days and then the fasting blood glucose was estimated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic SAM. The fasting blood glucose was found to be significantly reduced (p<0.05) in treated SAM in compared to control SAM groups. The study discloses that Lentinus edodes has significant antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic SAM. So, The Lentinus edodes extract appears promising for the development of a phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus.
3. Hepatoprotective Activity of Whole Part of the Plant Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) in Chloroform, Ethanol and Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxic Rat Models
Panda Amaresh, Rath Seemanchala, Pradhan Debashis, Mahanty Arpan, Gupta Bijan Kumar, Bala Nripendra Nath
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a rootless, leafless perennial parasitic twining herb belonging to the family Convolvulaceae and is commonly known as Akashvalli or Dodder. The Cuscuta reflexa is reported to possess antitumor, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antioxidant anticonvulsant, and induced alopecia activities. The research work is focused on phytochemical screening of whole part of the plant Cuscuta reflexa after each successive extraction with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water respectively followed by its hepatoprotective activity study. In vivo hepatoprotective activity of the Cuscuta reflexa whole plant extract was carried out using carbon tetrachloride, ethanol and paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rat models and compared with silymarin (20 mg/kg) as reference standard. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the aqueous extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant contains carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. Two way analysis of variance study of the estimated biochemical parameters for instance, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase were concluded that there is significant difference (p-value < 0.001) exists between the different treatment groups. Furthermore, least significant difference test of various biochemical parameters have indicated the highest dose of aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) was having comparable hepatoprotective activity to that of standard silymarin, which was also evident from the histopathological study of liver sections. However, activity of aqueous extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) were statistically not comparable (p-value < 0.05) with their respective SL treated standard groups.
4. Evaluation of Total Phenolic Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ficus glomerata Roxb.
Kirankumar Shivasharanappa, Ramesh Londonkar
In present study attempt has been made to characterize the antioxidant and phenolic content of the traditional medicinal plant Ficus glomerata. Fruit powder was subjected to extraction with methanol, concentrated and lyophilized. Different concentrations of extracts evaluated for their invitro antioxidant potentials using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, NBTS, TAA tests and total phenolic content also estimated. Total phenolic content observed in this study ranges from 76.77 to 351.45 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. In free radical scavenging assays, Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of extract ranging from 7.23 mg/ml to 35.08 mg/ml. Correlation studies between phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidants shows the plant phenolics role in their antioxidant capacities. Results indicated that the methanolic extract of F. glomerata fruit is highly effective against free radicals due to rich source of phenolics.
5. Microalbuminuria as Risk Indicator in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Updated Review
Nidavani RB, Mahalakshmi AM, Patil JS
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, symmetrical polyarticular disease that affects primarily the diarthrodial joints, which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints. Microalbuminuria occur leakage of small amounts of albumin into the urine, when there is an abnormal high permeability for albumin in the renal glomerulus of kidney. Microalbuminuria is generally associated with elevated levels of several inflammatory factors in the presence or absence of hypertension or diabetes. It is clear that kidney is involved in RA with both glomerular and tubular damage. Renal disease in RA however is usually asymptomatic and is detected only on laboratory investigations. It is often difficult to differentiate between damage due to disease activity and that due to drugs used to treat RA. Microalbuminuria is one of the important biomarker involved in various disorders in related to RA. The present review work bounces limelight on role of microalbuminuria in RA as well as in relation with other disorders.
6. Nitric Oxide in Diabetic Patients and its Relation with HbA1c
In diabetic patients, hyperglycemia leads to many complications like arteriosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Nitric Oxide plays a major role in micro and macro vascular complications. NO which is produced by endothelial cells has very short half life making it less available. The present study is undertaken to evaluate NO and its metabolites levels in diabetic patients. 55 diabetic patients attending diabetology consultant were compared with 25 controls attending OP, SRM Hospital. Serum NO and Urinary NO were estimated by griess method and FBS and HbA1c in AU400 autoanalyzer. Serum and urinary NO level were increased in diabetic patients compared to controls.
7. A Rapid Bio-Analytical Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Boeravinone B and Eupalitin-3-O-Β-D-Galactopyranoside from Boerhaavia Diffusa Using LC-MS/MS
Gomes AG, Vaidya VV, Patankar S, Kekare MB
Today people are more dependent on herbal drugs with over 80 percent of the world population relying on the traditional systems of medicine, largely plant based, for treatment of several acute diseases. The current research is based on the plant Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. which has been widely used for treating acute diseases and possess various biological activities. An array of pharmacodynamic studies have been conducted on animals using this plant. Inorder to bridge the gap between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, an understanding of the pharmacokinetic profile of the active markers in the plant is necessary for improved drug therapy. In the current research a rapid and sensitive Bio-analytical LC–MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of active markers Boeravinone B and Eupalitin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside in human plasma. The analytes were extracted from human plasma by SPE. Sildenafil citrate was used as the internal standard. A RP18 column enabled chromatographic separation of the analytes. The method involves simple isocratic chromatography and MS detection in positive-ionization mode. Validation of the method showed response was a linear function of concentration in the range 5.0–500.0 ng mL−1 for both Boeravinone B and Eupalitin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside. The method was suitably validated and was found to be precise and robust, with recoveries for both the analytes being consistent. The method can be successfully applied for the analysis of actual samples from dosed human and animals from pharmacokinetic studies.
8. Determination of Bioactive Components of Asystatia travancorica Bedd (Acanthaceae) by GC-MS Analysis.
Komalavalli.T, Packia Lincy. M, Muthukumarasamy.S, Mohan V.R
In this study, the bioactive compounds of whole plant of Asystasia travancorica have been evaluated using GC-MS analysis. The chemical compositions of the ethanol extract of whole plant of Asystasia travancorica were investigated using Perkin – Elmer Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract were matched with the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) library. Ten compounds were identified. This analysis revealed the presence of Levo-a-Elemene (41.97 %), Tetrahydtospirilloxanthin (17.07%), Stigmasterol (12.25%), Phytol (8.23%), 2,6,10-Dodecartrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-[trans-farnesol] (7.03%) and Ethyl iso-allochote (4.62%).
9. Impact of Organic Solvents in the Extraction Efficiency of Therapeutic Analogue Capsaicin from Capsicum chinense Bhut Jolokia Fruits
Nagoth Joseph Amruthraj, Preetam Raj. J.P., Antoine Lebel. L
The aim of this study was to find out the efficient extraction of pharmacologically important analogue capsaicinoids in different organic solvents of Capsicum chinense Bhut Jolokia fruits. Non polar solvents (Hexane, Benzene, Chloroform and Diethyl ether), Polar Aprotic solvents (Ethyl acetate, Acetone, Acetonitrile and Dimethyl sulfoxide -DMSO) and Polar Protic solvents (n-Propanol, Ethanol, Methanol and Water) were used for the extraction. The crude extracts were subjected to TLC for the qualitative examination for the presence of capsaicinoids. The simple linear regression curve was plotted for standard capsaicin purchased from Sigma Chemical. For the quantitative estimation UV- visible spectrophotometer analysis and phosphomolybdic reduction method of total capsaicin were performed. The total phenol content in the extracts was estimated by Folin- Ciocalteu acid reagent method. The TLC profile with retention factor 0.078 corresponding to standard capsaicin was observed in all extracts except DMSO. Among the 12 tested solvents, acetone and acetonitrile showed high pungency level with 1,347,439 SHU and 1,266,250 SHU respectively, followed by ethanol with pungency level of 1,246,523 SHU. The non polar solvent (hexane, benzene, chloroform) and polar protic solvents (methanol and water) showed the value less than 1,000,000 SHU. In the comparative study on the UV, total phenol and total capsaicin estimation reveals that acetone and acetonitrile solvents were efficient to extract the high amount capsaicinoids. Our results with the solvents used for the extraction showed diverse solubility of capsaicinoid. Hence this study concludes that polar aprotic solvents acetonitrile and acetone were the best solvent system for the efficient extraction of capsaicinoids for pharmacological and biological application.
10. Assessment of Ficus Spp. in Improving the Metabolic Syndrome Secondary to Hypercholesterolemia in Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet
Nagwa E. Awad, Sanaa A. Ali, Manal A. Hamed, Ahmed A. Seida, Marwa M. Elbatanony
The ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa and F. microcarpa (Fam. Moraceae) as well as the hexane extract of F. microcarpa and F. mysorensis leaves have been examined for improving the metabolic syndrome secondary to hypercholesterolemia in rats. The evaluation was done through measuring hepatic glucose, glycogen, protein and vitamin C and E levels. The more pronounced extract will be phytochemically screened and identified for the most abundant compounds using PC, TLC, MS, IR and 1HNMR techniques. Rats fed with high-fat-diet and orally administered with cholesterol (30 mg/0.3ml 0.7% tween/animal) five times/week for nine consecutive weeks. It has been recorded a significant decrease (p<0.001) in hepatic glucose, glycogen, total protein, and vitamin E and C levels. Orally treatment with leaves extract (500mg/kg body weight) at the same time of cholesterol induction and with the same duration revealed an improvement of the selected parameters by variable degree. F. religiosa recorded the most potent effect. The screening of this plant revealed the presence of carbohydrate, amino acids, carotenoids, triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, tannins and saponins. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of F. religiosa leaves succeeded to improve the metabolic disturbance associated with hypercholesterolemia and recorded antioxidant effect.
11. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Manilkara zapota (L.) Royen Flower
Priya P, Shoba FG, Parimala M, Sathya J
The present study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Manilkara zapota flower. The antioxidant property of the methanol and aqueous extract was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity with the IC50 values 1.97 g/ml and 4.22 g/ml for methanol and aqueous extract respectively. The antimicrobial property of the flower was studied by agar well diffusion method against few pathogenic organisms. Both the extracts exhibited significant antibacterial activity against all the four tested bacterial strains with zones of inhibition ranging from 26 mm to 29 mm. A qualitative analysis for the identification of the phytochemicals revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, flavones and saponins in the extracts which might have acted synergistically leading to its strong antioxidant and antibacterial efficiency. Hence, the methanol and aqueous flower extracts of Manilkara zapota can be considered as an interesting and economic source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial agent for utilization in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
12. Memory Enhancing Activity of Eclipta Alba in Albino Rats: A Correlation with Anticholinesterase Activity
Jena Monalisa, Mishra Swati, Pal A, Mishra S.S.
Memory is the ability of an individual to record sensory stimuli & retain them over short or long periods of time & recall the same at a later date when needed. Short and long term memory loss may result from deteriorating cerebral mechanisms due to different causes having impact on the quality of life. Memory enhancer can improve thinking, memory, and alertness in people with Alzheimer’s disease that affect the mind. Indigenous drugs are being constantly explored for this purpose. Eclipta alba is being examined for its memory enhancing quality as it is traditionally used for this purpose. Ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EEEA) was evaluated for memory enhancing activity using rodent models. Piracetam was the standard drug used. EEEA was administered to albino rats to evaluate transfer Latency (TL) on an elevated plus maze (EPM). TL was a measure of acquisition and retrieval learning. Radial arm maze (RAM) was used to evaluate the latency to find the food. Also time taken to reach the reward chamber was calculated by using Hebb – Willium’s maze.Biochemical analysis was done for acetyl cholinesterase enzyme level. EEEA at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in TL measured using EPM in comparison with the control. In RAM the activities of EEEA (100,200mg/kg ) showed significant memory enhancement. Time taken to reach the reward chamber is significantly decreased in test groups in comparison to control using Hebb – Willium’s maze. The increase in AChE activity by scopolamine was significantly reduced by EEEA (100 &200mg/kg p.o).
13. Paternal Age Combined with Maternal Age Influences the Incidence of Down Syndrome
Gargi Podder, Jayshree Banerjee, Madhusnata
Genetic abnormalities, such as Down syndrome possess greater risk for Children born to older parents.The influence of maternal age on Down syndrome is well established, but little is known about the genetic consequences of advanced paternal age. This study group included both Down syndrome patients and age, sex matched healthy controls. In this later maternal age group, the paternal contribution to Down syndrome was more than 50%. A paternal age effect on Down syndrome was seen in association with maternal age of 35 years and above, and it was most pronounced when the maternal age was of 40 years and above. Advanced paternal age combined with maternal age influences the incidence of Down syndrome. This effect may represent a paradigm for other genetic abnormalities in children of older fathers.