International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. Role of Diffusion–Weight MRI in Differential Diagnosis of Cerebral Cystic Lesions: A Prospective Study
Kassim A H Taj-Aldean
This study aimed to determine whether diffusion–weight MRI images and ADC (Apparent Diffusion Coefficient) could help accurately in distinguishing cystic cerebral lesions. The study included 65 patients with clinically suspected cerebral masses. They underwent surgery and diagnosed histologically. A conventional MRI was carried out on a 1.5T system using T1, T2 and fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences before and after intravenous injection of gadolinium and echo-planar spin-echo sequence diffusion weight and ADC is carried for all patients. All MR imaging features were categorized cerebral cystic lesions without knowledge of clinical details, according to the imaging features which were compared with the surgical and pathological findings.  The diagnosis was confirmed with surgery and histological evaluation which included 30(48%) patients with primary cystic brain tumors, 19 (35%) with metastatic tumors and 11 (17%) with abscess. All abscess cavities showed hyper intense DWI signal intensity and low signal ADC so the sensitivity for diagnosis abscess in DWI are 100%, while in primary brain tumor only 1 from 10 cystic glioma show hyper intense on DWI and hypo intense on ADC while the remain cystic glioma 9 show hypo intense on DWI and hyper intense on ADC make the sensitivity of DWI foe diagnosis primary malignant cystic tumor 90%. The study concluded that diffusion –weight MRI and ADC is sensitive for characterizing cystic cerebral lesions.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8256

2. Association of Lipid Profile, Atherogenic Indices, and LPL Hind-III Gene Polymorphism with Coronary Artery Disease Positive Subjects
Pusapati Madan Ranjit, Girijasankar Guntuku, Ramesh Babu Pothineni
Dyslipidemia is renowned as a prominent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases such as formation of plaques in arteries, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, sudden coronary death, stable angina and unstable angina. CAD may be due to dysfunctional mutations in lipoproteins or lipoprotein-related genes. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Our aim of the present study is to determine the association and prediction of risk cases by using atherogenic indices and Hind-III LPL gene polymorphism. Atherogenic indices are a powerful indicator to predict the risk of coronary artery diseases. The atherogenic indices of CAD negative and positive are CRI-I (4.68±0.08; 6.46±0.12), CRI-II (3.03±0.06; 3.99±0.15), TG/HDL-c (3.27±0.19; 7.40±0.62), AIP (0.45±0.02; 0.81±0.03) and AC (3.68±0.08; 5.39±0.13) observed respectively. These results indicate atherogenic indices are may be useful for identifying an individual at higher risk of cardiovascular disease in the clinical practices especially and not markedly deranged or in centers with insufficient resources to predict the CVS risk.  In the case of Hind-III LPL gene polymorphism; TT genotype frequency was found to be significantly higher in CAD positive subjects than the controls and CAD negative subjects. More than threefold was increased risk for CAD development under the codominant model. Correspondingly, the T allele frequency of intron 8 T >G polymorphism was elevated in CAD positive subjects (95 % CI; 2.19 (1.28- 3.75) p=0.003) compared to controls. LPL intron 8 T >G gene polymorphism (rs320) results support the above data; T allele (H+) was associated with various cardiovascular risks such as positively correlated with carotid artery atherosclerosis, higher risk of myocardial infarction and higher plasma triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8257

3. Synthesis of  N’-(2-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-Hydroxy Benzohydrazide and  N’-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)-4-Hydroxy Benzohydrazide, in Silico Study and Antibacterial Activity
Suzana, Isnaeni,Tutuk Budiati
In this study, synthesized N’-(2-methoxybenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide and N’-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide in two step  reaction by using methylparaben as starting material has been performed. Methylparaben was treated with hydrazine hydrate to obtain 4-hydroxybenzohydrazide. The reaction was carried out by  microwave irradiation resulting 91 % yield. The obtained compound was then reacted with 2-methoxbenzaldehyde or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to accomplish the target molecule, N’-(2-methoxybenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide and N’-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide in 55% and 72% yield respectively. Identification of N’-(2-methoxybenzylidene)-4-hydroxy benzo hydrazide and N’-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohidroksida was performed by FT-IR, MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. In silico study was done with receptor pdb 1C14. The N’-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide exhibited antimicrobial activity against  Escherichia coli (MIC=31.3 ppm), Bacillus subtilis (MIC=500 ppm). Antimicrobial activity of N’-(2-methoxybenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzohydrazide against Bacillus subtilis (MIC=31.3 ppm) and MIC= 500 ppm against Escherichia coli.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8258

4. Acanthamoeba Species in Tap Water, Egypt
Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy*, Mohamed A Marouf, Mahmoud A Gad
Genus Acanthamoeba causes 3 clinical syndromes amebic keratitis, granulomatous amebic encephalitis and disseminated granulomatous amebic disease (eg, sinus, skin and pulmonary infections). A total of 144 tap water samples were collected from Giza governorate, Egypt. Samples were processed for detection of Acanthamoeba species using non-nutrient agar (NNA) and were incubated at 30oC. The isolates of Acanthamoeba were identified to species level based on the morphologic criteria. Molecular characterization of the Acanthamoeba isolates to genus level was performed by using PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest occurrence percentage of Acanthamoeba species in water samples was observed in summer season (38.9%), then it decreased to be 30.6% in spring and 25% in each of autumn and winter. PCR analysis showed that 100% of 43 Acanthamoeba morphologically positive samples were positive by genus specific primer. In the present study eight species of Acanthamoeba can be morphologically recognized namely Acanthamoeba triangularis, Acanthamoeba echinulata, Acanthamoeba astronyxis, Acanthamoeba comandoni, Acanthamoeba  griffini, Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, Acanthamoeba quina and Acanthamoeba lenticulata. In conclusion, the most common Acanthamoeba species in tap water was Acanthamoeba comandoni.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8259

5. Formulation and Evaluation of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery of Mesalamine
Gadhave M V, Shevante Trupti B, Takale Avinash A, Jadhav S L, Gaikwad D D
In this study, we report pectin–Chitosan compression coated core tablets of Mesalamine for colonic delivery. Each 150 mg core tablet contained Mesalamine and was compression coated using 100% pectin 1:1, 10 pectin:1 Chitosan, or 10 pectin :2 Chitosan, at coat weights as 400mg. Drug dissolution or system erosion or degradation studies were carried out in pH 1.2, 6.8,7.4 phosphate buffers using a pectinolytic enzyme. The system was designed based on the gastrointestinal transit time concept, under the assumption of colon arrival times of 6 h. It was found that pectin alone was not sufficient to protect the core tablets and Chitosan addition was required to control the solubility of pectin. The optimum Chitosan concentration was 1 and such system would protect the cores up to 6 h and after that under the influence of pectinase the system would degrade faster and delivering 5-ASA to the colon. The pectin– Chitosan (10:1) envelope was found to be a promising drug delivery system for those drugs to be delivered to the colon.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8260

6. Transdermal Drug Delivery System
Syeda Ayesha Fathima, Shireen Begum, Syeda Saniya fatima
Conventional dosage forms which require multidose therapy have many problems and complications. Design of a conventional dosage forms should be such that it delivers right amount of drug in right manner to the target site. The encouragement in development of novel drug delivery system is apart from therapeutic efficacy is its cause. Redesigning the unit and means is a difficult task and profitable task so a controlled released drug delivery system, a novel drug delivery system evolves which facilitates the release of drug at predetermined rate. Controlled drug delivery can be achieved by transdermal drug delivery system which can deliver the drug through skin to the systemic circulation at a predetermine rate over a prolonged period of time.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8261

7. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plants and Urinary Tract Infections
Imad Hadi Hameed, Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye, Mohanad Jawad Kadhim
Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. According to World Health Organization (WHO), about 80% of the world population rely chiefly on plant based traditional medicine specially for their primary health care needs and there has been a worldwide move towards the use of traditional medicines due to concerns over the more invasive, expensive and potentially toxic main stream practices. This review gives a bird’s eye view on the updated information on urinary tract infections (UTIs), different categories of urologic herbs, historical use and modern scientific investigations on some important urologic herbs, clinical studies, some isolated chemical compounds and their possible side effects.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8262

8. Ghrelin and Obesity-An Update
Gandhi M, Swaminathan S
Ghrelin as human natural hormones is involved in fundamental regulatory process of eating and energy balance. It is a stomach derived hormone that acts as at the ghrelin receptor in multiple tissues throughout to the body. Its properties includes increasing appetite, decreasing systemic inflammation, decreasing vascular resistance ,increasing cardiac output, increasing glucose and IGF-1 levels, Hence it may play a significant role in Diabetes mellitus. Many studies have linked ghrelin to obesity and this paper is an attempt to bring out recent findings on the role of ghrelin in Diabetes Mellitus, particularly type2 Diabetes mellitus.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8263

9. Identification of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Patterns in Beta-Thalassemia Patients and their Relevance to the Mutational Spectrum of   the Human Beta-Globin Gene (HBB)
Aisha Elaimi, Abdullah Alraddadi, Sawsan Abuzinadah, Asma Alaidaroos, Ashraf Dallol, Mohammed Y Saka, Heba Alkhatabi, Abdulkarim Alraddadi, Adel M Abuzenadah
Aims: HLA genotyping is beneficial in both clinical and research settings in order to understand the mechanism of associated diseases as well as organ transplantation. Beta-Thalassemia is endemic in Saudi Arabia. Studies showed more than 200 mutations affecting the HBB gene thus causing the disease with the IVS-1-5 mutation is considered the most common mutation in KSA. HLA matching in beta-thalassemia patients can support therapeutic interventions through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as It is estimated that only 30% of patients can find an HLA-identical donor within their families. Methods: We have investigated the genetic polymorphism of 16 Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci (D6S291, TAP1, D6S2880, D6S1014, D6S2973, MICA, MOGc, MIB, MIB outer, D6S2674, D6S2959, D6S2908, Ring3CA, D6S2812, D6S248 and D6S2707) in 15 transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients’ and 15 healthy volunteers using a fluorescent-labelled singleplex-PCR typing method. Results: The result showed wide variation in alleles and high level of genetic polymorphisms. In addition, we found a high level of homozygosity in patients samples at 3 STR loci; Ring3CA, D6S2812 and D6S248 where this homozygosity is significantly associated with the IVS-I-5 mutation (p-value <0.05, <0.001 and <0.001 respectively). Conclusion: We conclude that HLA matching using the fluorescent-labelled singleplex-PCR typing method provides a useful technique supporting HSCT as well as raising questions about the potential association between homozygosity at certain STR markers and particular HBB mutations.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8264

10. Colic Phytotherapy in Iranian Ethnobotany: An Overview of the Effectiveness of the Most Important Native Medicinal Plants of Iran on Colic Disease
Mehrdad Karimi, Mahnaz Mardani, Leila Mahmoodnia
Colon disorders and diseases are of the significant gastrointestinal problems. Medicinal plants have a wide range of health effects. Medicinal herbs are used in the treatment of various diseases. Many native medicinal plants of Iran have anti-colic effects. Thus, in this review, the medicinal plants of Iranian ethnobotanical resources with anti-colic effects were reported. In this review study, a search for articles by the keywords colic, ethnobotanical, and medicinal plants was done. A search on the databases, such as Scopus, ISI, SID, MegaIran, and a number of other databases was performed. Based on the review results of ethnobotanical sources, it was revealed that the medicinal herbs of chamomile, lote, yarrow, dill, Tanacetum parthenium, Sisymbrium irio, plantain, Damascus rose, licorice, garden sage, oregano, etc. are of the most important anti-colic medicinal plants.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8265

11. Intraoperative Acetabular Fracture During Total Hip Replacement: Case Report
Saeed Ibrahim Al-Qahtani
Case Report
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8266

12. Phytotherapy in Anorexia: Effective Medicinal Plants on Appetite Based on Iranian Ethnobotanical Sources
Majid Hamidi, Leila Mahmoodnia, Mahnaz Mardani
Appetite is defined based on the regulators of the food-related variables that predict eating behaviors. It influences on energy homeostasis. Gastro-intestinal track is of the components of food intake and appetite control system. Environmental signals, including insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and centeral neuropeptides in the hypothalamus specify an individual’s appetite. Medicinal plants are a natural and useful medicinal source in the treatment of diseases. Many native medicinal plants of Iran have effective properties on appetite. Thus, in this review, the effective medicinal plants of Iranian ethnobotanical resources on appetite were reported. In this review study, a search for articles by the keywords colic, ethnobotanical, and medicinal plants was done. A search on the databases, such as Scopus, ISI C, S ID, Mega Iran, and a number of other databases was performed. 26 herbs from different parts of Iran are traditionally used to treat anorexia. Such medicinal plants as sweet fennel, artichoke, rhubarb, chamomile, chicory, turnip, wild plum, pennyroyal, thistle, fumitory, salsify, etc. are of the most important medicinal plants affecting appetite.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8267

13. Childhood Onset Hypoceruloplasminemia Presenting as Early-Onset Cerebellar Ataxia
Adel F Hashish, Ayman Kilany, Shora Y Darwish, Hanaa M Rashad, Ehab R Abdelraouf, Suzette helal
The syndrome of hypoceruloplasminemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting mainly with neurogegeneration, retinal degeneration, and diabetes mellitus. The syndrome, to the best of our knowledge, is not yet recognized in pediatric age group. We screened cases presenting with unexplained cerebellar ataxia and anemia using serum ceruloplasmin, transferrin saturation, and ferritin as biomarkers for hypoceruloplasminemia. An age and sex matched control group was included. Thirty cases (age range 4–17 years) (18 male and 12 female) have been included. The results showed a statistically significant low serum ceruloplasmin and transferrin saturation (18.9±12.1mg/dl and 10.1±5.1%, respectively), and high serum ferritin (124.7±65.7 ng/ml) compared to control group. Four cases have retinal degeneration. The detection of low serum ceruloplasmin concentration and transferrin saturation with high serum ferritin in patients with unexplained cerebellar ataxia is highly suspicious of hypocerluplasminemia which should be subjected for further molecular study.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8268

14. Iran’s Most Important Indigenous Medicinal Plants with Diuretic Properties: An Overview of Iranian Ethnobotanical Resources
Mehrdad Karimi, Leila Mahmoodnia, Sadegh Rezapour
By definition, urinary retention is called the inability to completely empty urine so that the volume of residual urine after discharge is higher than 100 cc and lower than 200 cc in the elderly. For the treatment of urinary retention, there are different therapeutic methods, such as traditional medicine and complementary therapies. One of the methods of traditional medicine is using medicinal plants. Medicinal herbs are effective on the treatment of many diseases due to their active and antioxidant ingredients. Many native medicinal plants of Iran are effective on the treatment of urinary retention and have diuretic properties. Thus, in this review, the effective medicinal plants of Iranian ethnobotanical resources on hemorrhoid were reported. In the present review study, a search for articles by the keywords hemorrhoid, ethnobotanical, and medicinal plants was done. A search on the databases, such as Scopus, ISI C, S ID, Mega Iran, and a number of other databases was performed. Search the databases, such as databases including Scopus, ISI C, S ID, and a number of other sites were Mgayran. Based on the results obtained, 45 herbs from different parts of Iran are traditionally used to treat urinary retention. Such medicinal plants as chicory, nettles, sorrel, milk, cheese, oleander, wild pistachio, fumitory, jujube, basil, nigella seeds, licorice, etc. are of the effective herbs.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8269

15. Grape Seeds Extract as Brain Food: A Review
Souad El Gengaihi, Doha H Abou Baker
Interest in the biological role of bioactive compounds present in medicinal herbs has increased over the last years. Of particular interest are plants that have an anti-Alzheimer activities. Several plants can be useful for Alzheimer (AD) management. Such as these which have anti-inflammatory activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory action, anti-apoptotic, slow the aggregation of amyloid peptide and antioxidant activities. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a complex mixture of several compounds, mostly represented by polyphenols and flavonoids. Their consumption is safe and is recognized to exert several health benefits. GS flavonoids have been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases, we present some findings on the potential benefits of GSE for the treatment of AD.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8270

16. The Antihypertension Effect of Fermented Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis L.)/Bakasang’s Peptide Extract Based on Cardiac’s Histopathology and Protease Activity on Hypertensive Rats Induced by Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA) -Salt
Hilman Nurmahdi, Dyah Kinasih Wuragil, Sasangka Prasetyawan, Aulanni’am Aulann’am
Hypertension is an abnormality of cardiovascular condition, marked by high-blood pressure over the normal condition. One of the factors that causes hypertension is altered equilibrium of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteron system (RAAS). This condition, which commonly by genetic could causes excess production of Angiotensin II, which known as vasoconstrictor, carried out by Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II could increases the body’s blood pressure, and stimulates the production of free radicals, causing hypertension and oxidative stress. One of the common medication for hypertensive patient are using ACE inhibitor pills. Consumption of commercial pills, had a negative effect on the patient, such as skin iritation, cough, allergic reaction, etc.  This study was conducted to explore the potential peptide of bakasang extract isolated from fermented skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis L.) for antihypertensive therapy, based on the activity of protease and histopathology of cardiac tissue on hypertensive rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced by DOCA-salt. The rats were divided into five groups: (1) negative control group, (2) hypertensive control group, (3) hypertension with captopril therapy dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight (BW), (4) and (5) hypertension with bakasang’s peptide extract therapy dose of 200 mg/kgBW, and 300 mg/kgBW, respectively. The results showed that bakasang’s peptide extract dose of 200 mg/kgBW significantly (p<0.05) decrease protease activity and improve histopathology of cardiac tissue on hypertensive rats. Protease activity post-therapy decreased to be 39.27 % from positive hypertension group. It could be concluded that the peptide of bakasang’s peptide extract has antihypertension effect (ACE-inhibitors), which was able to improve histopathology and decrease protease activity of the cardiac tissue on hypertensive rats induced by DOCA-salt.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8271

17. Foam-Cell Signified Blood Vessel Endhotel Repair and Histopatology of Abdominal Aorta through Stem Cell Allogenous Therapy to Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Atherosclerosis
Rahayu Setiyaningsih, Hening Laswati, Ferdiansyah, Fedik Abdul Rantam, Aulanni’am Aulanni’am
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation process of endothel cell layer of blood vessels which is initiated by the disfunction of the endothel. This research aimed at understanding the repairment mechanism of the function of endothel in cardiac blood vessels with ateroskleroris case after being given medium-intenity physical exercises, mesenchymal stem cell and combination of the medium-intensity physical exercises and mesenchymal stem cell by lookin into the foam cell of abdominal aorta. This research employed true experimental research design with post test only control group design. The sample of this reseach were 24 male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) furrow that were controlled its homogeneity using inclusive criteria; confirming ateroclerosis, 20 week age, weight ranged from 180-200 gram, inhybrid, and healthy that were indicated by good desire for food and behaved normally. The Rattus norvegicus which fulfilled the inclusive criteria were divided into three groups which first group was the control group (atheroscleoris rats). The second group was ateroclerosis rats and received regular medium-intensity physical exercises.  The third group atherosclerosis which received combination of regular medium-intensity physical exercises and received mesenchymal stem cell. The result of manova test showed value p < 0.001 which indicated the existence of different foam cell found in the control group, exercise group, stem cell group and combined exercise and stem cell group. It can be concluded that attempt to decrease the risk factor of aterosclerosis is one of the ways to protect the endothel of the blood vessels. Deep understanding on this mechanism is expected to give new insights to do preventive action and treatments toward ateroclerosis by combination theraphy of regular medium-intensity physical exercises and received mesenchymal stem cell.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8272

18. A Review on Noval Anticoagulants
Anila K N, Rakhi Krishna, Bhama Santhosh Kumar, Lakshmi R
The long term anticoagulation with warfarin is associated with various bleeding risks which led to the need for newer drugs. With the developments in the anticoagulation therapy the newer agents like dabigatran, rivaroxaba, apixaban and edoxaban have gained popularity with their more predictable pharmacological properties and reduced need for drug monitoring.The United States of America has approved both rivaroxaban and dabigatran to be used in the treatment of VTE (Venous Thrombo Embolism). In Europe and Canada dabigatran is prescribed after elective hip or knee arthroplasty to prevent VTE. For a VTE prophylaxis after an orthopediac surgery and to prevent stroke in AF patient, Rivaroxaban is recommended according to RECORD study. Edoxaban is highly effective in treatment of VTE and acts as a preventive measure of stroke in NVAF (Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation). Through this article various pharmacological aspects, dosing regimens, bleeding associated risk will be illustrated.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8273

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