Bi-Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal

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1. A Recent Progresses and Manufacturing Techniques in Pharmaceutical Powders and Granulation
Heyam Saad Ali, Rasha Saad Suliman, Babiker M A Elhaj, Raina Suliman
Nowadays very few drugs are formulated as powders or granules, they are usually taken with some water in which they are readily dispersible in & somewhat rapidly dissolving in as a result of the large surface area provided by the small particles of the powder as well as high solubilitys of the other ingredients used in the formulation, leading to high drug absorption, their bioavailability could be similar to the suspensions form in general. This review covers the classifications of pharmaceutical powders, and recent advancements in granulation techniques with their desirable characteristics in enhancing drug bioavailability and manufacturing performance.

2. Importance of Different Novel Nasal Drug Delivery System-A Review
Charu Saxena, Kunal Arora, Lovely Chaurasia
The intranasal delivery system is preferable route for administration of the drug for local, systemic as well as central nervous system drug delivery. Advantages of nasal spray dosage form such as it is cost-effective, easy to use/carry and self-administrable, it has high patient compliance make this dosage form growing opportunity for nasal drug delivery. This article outlined the relevant aspects of nasal anatomy, physiology and histology, and the biological, physicochemical and pharmaceutical factors that must be considered during the formulation development of nasal spray. It is intuitively expected that this review will help to understand nasal formulation and it’s in- vitro characteristics.

3. Pharmaceutical Powder Dosage Forms: A Review
Heyam Saad Ali1, Rasha Saad Suliman, Babiker M A Elhaj, Raina Suliman
A powder is a solid state fine dry bulk, composed of particle of varying shape, grain size, and flow properties. Despite the desirable properties of being in fine size, but it has manufacturing limitations such as difficulty in flowing and clumping together. Therefore, the granular course size is preferred to overcome such problems in manufacturing technologies. Powders have different classifications and different uses according to the route of administrations which will be covered in this review.

4. In silico Studies on the Inhibitory Nature of GTF -231(Gymnemic Acid, Trigonelline and Ferulic Acid in the ratio of 2:3:1), an Ayurvedic Preparation on the Activity of Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxykinase
Sharmila C, Subramanian S
The prevalence of diabetes and its secondary complications are increasing globally due to genetic and environmental factors. T2DM accounts for more than 90% of the total diabetic population and its incidence is linked to obesity induced insulin resistance followed by insufficient secretion of insulin. Most of the currently available drugs for the treatment of T2DM are known to elicit undesirable side effects in addition to the development of resistance after prolonged use. Hence, the search for lead molecules preferably from plant origin continues. Recently, we have formulated a herbal preparation comprising of three phytochemicals namely Gymnemic acid (GA), Trigonelline (TG) and Ferulic acid (FA) in the ratio of 2:3:1 and studied its antidiabetic efficacy in type 2 diabetes in rats. Gluconeogenesis plays a pivotal role in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources especially from the amino acids and its role is chiefly controlled by the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The present study is aimed to perform molecular docking studies involving the inhibitory effect of the above phytochemicals on PEPCK activity. Auto-Dock Tools were used to study the docking simulations. Auto Dock 4.2 is used to study the molecular interactions between the phytochemical ligands and the enzyme receptor, PEPCK. The binding energy obtained for GA, TG and FA on PEPCK is found to be –2.9, –5.92 and –7.2 Kcal/Mol, respectively. The data obtained suggested the inhibitory role of GTF-231 on the activity of PEPCK which in turn aids in the regulation of normoglycemia.

5. The Effect of Modified Release Dosage Forms on Absorption of Medications
Heyam Saad Ali, Rasha Saad Suliman, Babiker M A Elhaj, Raina Suliman
Pharmaceutical industries focus on enhancing patients’ compliance by reducing dosing frequency and minimizing side effects.  People above 40s year are frequently experiencing potential drug-drug interaction during combination therapy poly-therapy of once- daily formulations. The market is progressing rapidly in modified release technological advancements in improving bioavailability of drug delivery systems by controlling the erratic drug-release and plasma-concentration profiles. Consequently, enhancing patient compliance, cost effective and minimizing side effects and toxicities. This review focusing on the classification of different modified release drug dosage forms with their plasma-concentration profiles associated with absorption and changes in controlling and management of diseases.

6. Overview of Antibiotic Therapy to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
Das Sarkar D, Tale V S
Multidrug resistant Staphylococci are considered to be a major issue in human health. The MRSA strains shows great resistance to most commonly used antibiotics such as Aminoglycosides, Microlides,Fluoroquinolones and Chloramphenicol etc. Strains of S.aureus when recognized as MRSA,it is placed under the category of MDR and are labeled as superbug in the health domain.The genomic island Staphylococcal cassette chromosome make (SCC mec) contains the antibiotic resistant gene mec A along with Cytolycin gene psm-mec. High usage of antibiotics in hospitals with selection pressure of the antibiotics has led to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in hospital acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains.

7. A Prospective Assessment of the Causes and Complications Associated with Preterm Birth in A Tertiary Care Hospital, Erode
Sariga P, Seny Wilson, Shanmuga Sundaram Rajagopal, Krishnaveni
Objective(S): To assess the probable causes of pre-term labor (PTL) also to identify the complications associated with PTL. Method(S): This prospective study was conducted over a period of 6 months (April to September 2018), in which 100 antenatal women were admitted in the hospital with ante-partum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membrane, and weak cervix. The complications associated with preemies, gestational age at delivery, causes and neonatal outcome were analyzed and recorded. Resuls: The results revealed a comparatively low incidence of pre-term birth. Pre-term birth was mostly observed between the age group of 20-22 years. Among the cases, the most common causes of pre-term delivery was premature rupture of membrane 24(48%), 12(24%) cases were due to ante-partum hemorrhage. The study showed that nifedipine was able to induce tocolysis for atleast 1 day in 08% of patients. Furthermore, nifedipine was able to induce tocolysis for atleast 2 days in 06% of patients. Conclusion(S): The significant causes of preterm birth found in this study were (i) premature rupture of membrane and (ii) ante-partum hemorrhage respectively. Respiratory distress syndrome was the major complication associated with preemies. Prolongation of delivery for 48 hours by administering tocolytics for deriving the benefit of nifedipine coverage was found to reduce the morbidity due to RDS, but the same did not reduce the overall neonatal mortality below 34 weeks.

8. Assessment of Rose Water and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of a Rose Water Based Cream Formulation
Abidi Safia, Zaidi Aamir, Azhar Iqbal, Sultan Rafi, Mahmood Zafar
Photo-aging is a universal dilemma that occurs in our population due to constant contact with ultraviolet radiation. The utilization of antioxidants is a successful approach to avoid symptoms associated to the photo-induced aging of the skin. In view of this, present study was designed to prepare and evaluate the antioxidant & anti-inflammatory activity of cream comprising the aqueous petals extract of Rosa damascena for its radical scavenging and protein denaturation activity. Antioxidant activity assessed using standard ascorbic acid (ferric reducing power assay), and anti-inflammatory activity assessed using standard diclofenac sodium measuring of the %age inhibition of protein denaturation. The rose water contains the major phytoconstituents which are polyphenolic compounds flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins which are mainly responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Out of three cream formulations (F1, F2, and F3). F1 cream formulation showed the highest antioxidant (81.55%) and anti-inflammatory activity (80.6%) at 1000µg/ml. the result noted to be concentration dependent. The IC 50 value of F1 formulation cream was 257.39 while for F2 cream formulation 374.41.  The present results indicate that the Rosa damascena petals extract (Rose water) has a good potential for cosmetic product development.