1. Comparative Evaluation of Arka Lavana – An Ayurvedic Herbomineral Formulation
Devanathan. R, Niraimathi. K. L., Karunanidhi. M, Brindha. P
Arka lavana is one of the Herbo – mineral preparations which is explained under Lavana Kalpana (Preparation of Salt) of Ayurveda. Since many years, it is traditionally used in the effective management of liver and spleen diseases, ascites etc. To do a comparative study of Arka lavana prepared employing traditional and modern methods. Arka lavana was prepared in two different methods viz., Traditional puta method and the Modern muffle furnace method and named as Arka lavana – A and Arka lavana – B respectively. The formulations thus prepared were analyzed with standard parameters like physicochemical characterization. Arka lavana was characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, Particle size analyzer, Zeta sizer, TG-DTA and X- ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. Sodium and Chloride content was 52.09%, 22.40% and 49.37%, 22.91% in Arka lavana – A and B respectively. Though Arka lavana – A prepared by employing traditional puta method, was matching with Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, based on the parameters of analysis, it is difficult to conclude that Traditional puta method is best method than the Modern muffle furnace method.
2. Antioxidant Activity of Some Common Medicinal Plants
Ansa Mathew, Madhu.C.D, Subash Philip
The present study is aimed at evaluating antioxidant effect of six traditionally used medicinally useful plants.In recent days there is an increased intrest for exploring plants containing powerful antioxidant activity.Plants have become an important source of a good amount of antioxidants that prevent oxidative stress caused by free radicals.Here an attempt is made to evaluate invitro antioxidant activity of six traditionally used plants by using three different methods.The activity was found to increase in a dose dependent manner for all the extracts. Natural compounds especially those that are derived from medicinal plants provide a large number of antioxidants useful for humans . The extracts of Ficus bengalensis, Hemidesmus indica, Sida retusa,,Ixora coccenia,Green tea and Terminalia chebula were screened invitro for their antioxidant activity. These plants have a wide use in traditional system of medicine. Soan attempt was made to evaluate their antioxidant activity.
3. A Review: Ependymomas Disease
Shinde S.M, Kumbhar U.R, Deshmukh D.B, Gaikwad D.D, Grampurohit N.D.
The ependymomas are relatively not a common tumor. Ependymomas are tumors of the brain and spinal cord that arise from ependymal cells lining the central fluid spaces (ventricles) of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. However, most clinicians agree that the radical removal of the is the most important prognostic factor. Tumor removal was not sufficient before the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resulted in a considerable operative morbidity and mortality. As the micro neurosurgical techniques and microsurgical anatomy become popular and the MRI provide more detailed anatomical information preoperatively, radical removal of this complex and complicated tumor can be more feasible. In childhood ependymoma, the treatment related morbidity and motility can be the special issues, which can modify the policy of management safe tumor removal and minimal adjuvant treatment, which are extremely important
4. Recent Developments and Strategies of Ocular Insitu Drug Delivery System: A Review
Kavitha K, Santhosh Kumar P, M. Rupeshkumar, Jagadeesh Singh S.D, Jyothi.M, Nekuri
Ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist for past 10‐20 years. As an isolated organ, eye is very difficult to study from a drug delivery point of view. Despite these limitations, improvements have been made with the objective of maintaining the drug for an extended period. Recently, controlled and sustained drug delivery has become the standard in modern Pharmaceutical design and an intensive research have been undertaken in achieving much better drug product effectiveness, reliability and safety. The formation of ocular in-situ gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various biodegradable polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DLlactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co- glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.
5. Antibacterial effectiveness of many plants extracts against the resistant Negative Coagulase staphylococcus that cause Clinical Mastitis in Cows
Al Laham SH, Al Fadel F
Clinical mastitis caused by negative coagulase staphylococcus is considered to be the most dangerous diseased cases in cows and it can cause great economic loses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of extracts prepared from different parts of the following plants: Olea europea Linn (Oleaceae) , Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae) , thymus vulgaris Linn (Laminaceae), Rosmarinuis officinalis Linn (Laminaceae) Ficus carica Linn (Moraceae),and Achillea falcata Linn (Asteraceae), against resistant, negative coagulase staphylococcus in 1371 Samples of milk. The presence of negative coagulase staphylococcus in 1371 Samples of milk by using blood agar, Manitol agar, and some bio-chemical tests that were investigated .Secondly, the antibacterial activity of many antibiotics on these bacteria by using disc diffusion method were determined . The plants were extracted with water, absolute alcohol, then ether by using soxhlet apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. The antibacterial activity of the plants extracts were determined by using disc diffusion method. This study showed the presence of different antibacterial effectiveness of the alcoholic extracts prepared from different parts of those plants against resistant coagulase staphylococcus. The extract of thymus vulgaris has the strongest effectiveness, whereas the extract of Olea europea has the weakest effectiveness against resistant coagulase staphylococcus. The alcoholic extracts of the studied plants showed the antibacterial effectiveness against resistant coagulase staphylococcus.
6. Correlation of Cystatin C and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Uncontrolled Type 2 Dm
Arul Senghor, Ebenezer William, Jeevanathan, Naveen, Shyam
Renal dysfunction is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cystatin C is identified as a promising marker of renal dysfunction and has emerged as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk. This study aims to estimate and correlate the levels of serum Cystatin C with cardiovascular risk markers in Type 2 Diabetic patients with and without glycemic control. The study population included Type 2 Diabetic patients aged between 35 and 60 years of either sex. Among 320 Diabetic patients, 120 patients were recruited and divided into group A (n= 54) with HbA1c ≤ 6.5% Hb and group B (n=66) with HbA1c > 6.5% Hb. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for FBG, Total cholesterol, TGL, HDLc, LDLc, Creatinine and HbA1c. Serum Cystatin C was estimated by immunoturbidimetric method and hs-CRP by particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric method. Non-HDLc and Cardiovascular risk ratios TC/HDLc and LDLc/HDLc was calculated. Diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 6.5%) had satistically significant higher value of serum cystatin C, hs-CRP, TC, TGL, LDLc and low HDLc as compared to diabetic patients with good glycemic control. Our data revealed high serum cystatin C concentration (1.30 ± 0.42 mg/L) which correlated well with the elevated endothelial inflammatory marker hs-CRP (14.02 ± 8.33 mg/L) and also with the mean of non-HDLc (177.3 ± 44.57 mg/dL ). In the study, serum Cystatin C showed a positive correlation with HbA1c (r = 0.9) and with Cardiovascular risk markers hs-CRP (r = 0.89), non-HDLc (r = 0.66), TC: HDLc (r = 0.48) and LDLc: HDLc (r = 0.72).Serum Cystatin C, a preclinical marker of renal dysfunction can be used as a predictive marker of diabetic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk in poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetic patients.
7. Antiobesity Effect of Polyherbal Formulations in Cafeteria and Atherogenic Diet Induced Obesity in Rats
Jain Vikas Kumar, Badjatya Vishal, Nema Rajesh Kumar
A weight loss supplement containing Cissus quadrangularis and other ingredients including, Glycine angustifolia, Avena sativa and Spinacia oleracea was evaluated in a 6-week trial in female Wister rats fed on cafeteria and atherogenic diets. Polyherbal Formulation (PHF) was prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters. Female Wistar rats were fed cafeteria diet (highly palatable, energy rich animal diet that includes a variety of human snack foods) and atherogenic diet for 6-week. Polyherbal formulation was administered in a dose of 400 mg/kg, p.o., once daily to the drug treatment groups. The effect of Polyherbal formulation was recorded on the parameters like body weight, food and water intake, behavioral activity and various biochemical parameters like serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Significant reduction in body weight, behavioral activity and serum glucose levels after treatment was observed with Polyherbal formulation in cafeteria diet and atherogenic diet fed rats. Treatment with Polyherbal formulation also significantly decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride in rats fed with atherogenic diet. Polyherbal formulation had no adverse effect on behavioral parameter. The Polyherbal formulation helped reduce body weight by approx 20 – 25 % in animal fed on cafeteria and atherogenic diets.
8. Correlation between hormones, cytokines, MMP2 and α-fetoprotein among hyperlipidemic obese children
Iman H. Kamel, Yasser E. Nassef, Hanaa H. Ahmed
Childhood obesity and its complications have become a very serious public health concern and threat. Obesity confers increased risk for cardiovascular diseases as a result of accumulation of visceral fat, which alters metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study is to identify, correlate and validate certain biomarkers for detecting obesity in Egyptian children. Thirty patients and twenty healthy volunteers as control were enrolled in this study. All subjects were prepubertal (7-12 years) and of both sex. Anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin fold thickness (ASFT) were taken into consideration. Leptin, matrix metalloproteinase -2 (MMP2), interlukin-10 (IL-10), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated. Lipid profile; cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were also tested. The work was extended to measure liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (ASL&ALT). The results revealed significant elevation (p<0.05) of all the selected parameters in obese children as compared to healthy individuals, while HDL-C showed significant decrease. The pearson’s correlation test (2-tailed) revealed significant (p<0.01) positive correlation between BMI and the selected parameters. In conclusion, these biomarkers succeeded for detecting children who may be at risk of being overweight or obese. Strong association between obesity and the selected biomarkers were observed.