1. Alcoholic Gastritis: Eminence of Clinical Pharmacist to Attenuate Quality of Life Asha K Rajan, Vedha pal Jeyamani S*, Sabishruthi S, Kavitha S, Indumathi S, Lavanya R, Kaviya U
Gastritis is one among the many gastrointestinal conditions commonly found. The etiological cause of gastritis may be of various sources like food habits, toxicity from food etc,. Alcoholic gastritis is where chronic abusers of alcohol face a serious condition with revilement possible only once the withdrawal of alcohol is done. Rehabilitation therapy is involved in engaging the patients to withdraw alcohol which is being abused by them. Presently a case series on alcoholic gastritis of three patients have been done. Culture examination of the patient’s revealed helicobacter pylori found in two and Escherichia coli found in the other. Their amylase and lipase levels showed wide variations with USG and CECT reports confirming gastritis with etiological cause of alcohol. Pharmacotherapy was initiated with Bismuth subsalicylate 524mg, amoxicillin 500g, and metronidazole 500mg. additionally; antacids like Ranitidine 150 mg, antiemetic like ondansetron 8mg and vitamin supplements like B-complex were given. Rehabilitation counseling and necessary lifestyle modification has also been insisted upon. Cognitive and behavioral therapies were included within the counseling given. The intact role of the clinical pharmacist could be in the sectors of guiding with pharmacotherapy, counseling imposed on lifestyle changes to be done and rehabilitation therapy guidance with support. Eradication of the microorganism which gained access through food an alcohol, and withdrawal of alcohol would bring back the patient to normal life.
2. In-vitro drug-drug interaction of clopidogrel with omeprazole and lansoprazole Singh Charanjeet
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is very common worldwide. Clopidogrel is prescribed for chronic use in these patients. Clopidogrel is a prodrug and a adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors. Its active metabolite act on P2Y12 Receptor which is a G-Protein coupled receptor and it inhibits the process of initiation of platelet aggregation. Omeprazole and lansoprazole are the proton pump inhibitors which are mostly prescribed in combination with clopidogrel to reduce gastric bleeding. There were no studies done to elucidate the changes in metabolic clearance profile of clopidogrel in combination with either omeprazole or lansoprazole in rat liver microsomes. Pharmacokinetics is the mathematical analysis of ADME. For this study prepared pooled liver microsomes from Sprague Dawley rat for used as a valuable in-vitro model to elucidate biotransformation mechanism of new chemical entity and drug-drug interaction by different methods and standardize the prepared rat liver microsomes with respect to commercially available Xenotech’s rat liver microsomes. Metabolism, clearance and elimination rate constant of clopidogrel was significantly decreased when it was co-incubated with omeprazole as compared to co-incubation with lansoprazole but half life of clopidogrel was significantly increased when it was co-incubated with omeprazole as compared to co-incubation with lansoprazole. So lansoprazole is better to prescribe as a co-administration therapy with clopidogrel.
3. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of some novel N-Mannich bases of heterocyclic 1,3,4-thiadiazole. Singh Charanjeet
A series of some novel N-Mannich bases of heterocyclic 1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized through the condensation reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazole containing a aromatic secondary amine, aromatic aldehydes and cyclic compounds employing Mannich reaction and using conventional synthesis. All the synthesized compounds were obtained in the range of 57.41-83.3 % yield. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy. the essential structural features responsible for interaction with receptor site are established within a suggested pharmacophore. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds was determined, against two Gram-positive bacteria, viz. S. aureus & B. subtilis and Gram-negative, viz. E. coli and K. pneumoniae, by cup-plate method using the standard drug ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) changed in the range of 1.56_ _ 200 mg mL_1. Compound 3b exhibited excellent activity against both bacteria. The in vitro antifungal activity of the synthesized compound was also evaluated by cup-plate method against the fungi A. niger and C. albicans compared with the standard drug Fluconazole. Compound 4a, 8a exhibited excellent activity against both fungi. The result has show that the compounds are quite active against pathogens under study and were nontoxic. The anti-inflammatory activity of the compound was evaluated, on albino rats, by carageenan induced rat paw oedema method using the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Compound 7b and 8c exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmacological activities. Structurally the compound 7b has a greater number of unsaturated hydrocarbons in schiff base, which shows good lipophilic properties within electron rich morpholine ring in Mannich base. Statistical significance of differences between group was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Among the synthesized compounds 3a, 4b, 5c, 7b, 8a and 8c were found be the most active. All the synthesized compounds were found to be low lethal as ascertained by LD50 test.