1. The Association of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Aplastic Anemia in Egyptian Patients Rania A Zayed, Samah Abd Elhamid, Doaa Khamess
Background: TGF-β1 has been described as an important regulator of hemopoiesis. TGF-β1 polymorphic variants may relate to altering the expression of TGF-β1 and hence its effect on hematopoiesis and possible role in aplastic anemia pathogenesis. Aim: We try in this study to find out the allele distribution of TGF-β1-509 C/T in Egyptian population and hence figure the association of it with the susceptibility to aplastic anemia in Egyptian patients. Methodology: A case control study was designed to assess TGF-β1-509 C/T allele distribution in healthy controls (810 subjects) from six articles that was compared to TGF-β1-509 C/T allele distribution in aplastic anemia patients (90 subjects) from 2/6 articles included in the study. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between the wild (CC) versus mutant (CT/TT) genotypes of TGF-β1 509 C/T mutation in patients and controls. Mutant genotypes are more frequent in the patients when compared to controls (p = 0.017), and TGF-β1 509 C/T mutation is associated with 1.8 times the risk of developing the disease (95% CI: 1.1-2.8). Conclusion: TGF-β1-509 C/T mutation may be associated with risk of development aplastic anemia.
2. Drug Utilization Study of Antibiotic in Medicine Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital: A Descriptive Observational Study Jain Prince, Mangla Prabhal, Nain Parminder, Kaur Jaspreet
Drug utilization studies are useful in the drug reforming required resistance and sensitivity to improving the standards of medical treatment at all levels in health system. It also helps in the identification of problems creates with drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of antibiotics prescribed per prescription according to the indication and cultural report of infected patients. Methods: This was a descriptive observational study. Over a period of six months from November 2016 to April 2017, about 150 patients who were prescribed antibiotics were included in the study. The data on antibiotic containing prescriptions from each patient was collected from the inpatient of medicine department and entered in a specially designed case report form. The study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Result: A total of 150 prescription cases were analysed. It was observed that out of 150 patients, 54 were male (36%) and 96 were female (64%). Out of 150 patients, 90 (60%) patients were treated empirically and 60 (40%) were treated based on their culture report. According to data analysis the maximum infection were observed with gram negative bacteria (66%) i.e. E.coli in urinary tract infection etc and with gram positive bacteria (34%) i.e. streptococcus species in septicemia, meningitis etc. For these infections commonly prescribed antibiotic were amikacin (57%) and metronidazole (25%) in single therapy respectively. The route of administration used for these antibiotic was intravenous (69%) as compared with oral (31%). Most of the prescriptions contained polypharmacy. Conclusion: The study was undertaken to give feedback to the prescribers, so as an overuse of injections that had increased the cost of the treatment; also, the culture sensitivity was not done before prescribing antibiotics. Patient counseling should be done for the proper use of antibiotics, culture sensitivity tests should be conducted before prescribing antibiotics.