International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. Folk Medicinal Value of Some Weeds Around Hyderabad
Krishna CM, Gupta V, Bansal P, Kumar S, Kumar SP, Kumar TP, Sharma S
There are many weeds seen which are uprooted to protect the cultivated plants. Some of these plants have good medicinal and economic value. Weeds commonly seen in the cultivated lands in and around Hyderabad were collected and identified using the standard literature. The medicinal values of these plants have been identified by the folk lore claims and the standard literature of the Indian systems of medicine (Ayurveda and Siddha). Most of these weed plants identified are being used in the Indian systems of medicine and public domain since many centuries, which have much clinical importance. Hence the local people and farmers must be educated regarding the medicinal uses of these weed plants for health care and for the generation of revenue through the collection of weeds.

2. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology In India As A Growing Field
Bhumika Yogi, Sujeet Gupta, Yogesh Murti, Devender Pathak, Manmohan Singhal, Yashwant
Biotechnology is the science of today and tomorrow. It has application in all major service sectors of the society that is health, agriculture, industry and environment. Through the combined efforts of government, academia, research and industrial sectors, India is poised to become a major hub and logistics operation centre for R&D, manufacturing, and operations in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries within the Asia-Pacific region. There are several factors, which makes the biotech scenario bright in India. The future of pharmaceutical biotechnology in India holds immense potential if the biotechnology firms tap the big growth avenues to develop drugs for rare diseases.

3. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Standardised Extracts of Leaves of Three Varieties of Ficus deltoidea
Zunoliza Abdullah, Khalid Hussain, Zhari Ismail, Rasadah Mat Ali
Present study aimed to evaluate standardised extracts of different verities of Ficus deltoidea, a traditional medicinal plant, for anti-inflammatory activity using three in vitro assays, lipoxygenase, hyaluronidase and TPA-induced oedema. Methanol and aqueous extracts were standardised by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using two pharmacologically active markers, vitexin and isovitexin, which were isolated from methanol extract of the plant having code FDT1M. The method was validated and then applied to standardise extracts of the plant. In the extracts, the concentration of vitexin and isovitexin varied in the range 2.45 ± 0.00 – 19 ± 0.12 mg/g and 1.58 ± 0.02 – 41.49 ± 0.47 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of three varieties of the plant displayed different anti-inflammatory activities (p < 0.05). The activity of the extracts was found comparable to apigenin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, indomethacin, which were used as control (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that extracts of leaves of Ficus deltoidea possess antiinflammatory properties.

4. Evaluation of Medicinal Properties of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in male Swiss albino mice
Nidhi Mishra, Vijay lakshmi Tandon, Ashok Munjal
Swiss albino mice were orally administered Hibiscus rosa sinensis (500 mg/kg of body weight) and effect of the treatment on, reproductive organ cholesterol level and glucose level. Recovery study was also carried out. The treatment caused reduction in the weight of testis, epididymis and evaluation of sperm count indicates that sperm density decreased significantly. Histologically, testis in mice treated with the plant extract showed alteration in the seminiferous tubules and alteration include decrease in thickness and density of germinal epithelium and hypertrophy in majority of cells moreover lumen shows negligible presence of sperms in the treated animal as compared to control. The treatment group had decrease in levels of testosterone. Crude extract of blooms of Hibiscus rosa sinensis possess hypoglycemic and hypocholestrolemic potentially. The alterations caused in the above endpoints by the plant extract were reversible and by 60 days of the treatment withdrawal, the parameters recovered to control levels. The results in Swiss albino mice thus suggest that Hibiscus rosa sinensis treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, Cholesterol level and glucose level.

5. Adaptogenic Activity Studies on the Crude Extract of Polyscias balfouriana var. Marginata Root and Leaf
Sandhya S, Vinod KR, Madhu Divakar C, Nema RK
It is a well known fact that stress of any nature produces a non specific state in an organism or a state of ‘stress syndrome’. The present study is based on the Adaptogenic activity of Polyscias balfouriana. Studies based on forced locomotor activity, behavioral despair test, hypothermia test, hypoxia test and anabolic effect were conducted. The leaf extract was found to have better activity than root extract except for the forced locomotor activity.

6. A Quantitative Estimation of Aeridin in Wattakaka volubilis by HPTLC
G Mridula, C S Shreedhara, K Katkar, A Suthar, V.S Chauhan
The present paper deals with development and standardization of HPTLC method used for quantification of Aeridin in Wattakaka volubilis commonly known as Green milkweed climber, a plant of the family Asclepiadacea. Aeridin is a new phenanthropyran derivative 2, 7– dihydroxy – l, 3-dimethoxy – 9, 10-dihydrophenanthropyran, isolated from the whole plant of W. volubilis, which possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Hence, there is a need to develop and standardize a chromatographic method for quantification of Aeridin, for standardization of W. volubilis. An attempt has been made to quantify Aeridin in W. volubilis extracts by HPTLC method. The lowest detectable limit of Aeridin was found up to 2 ng with good resolution and separation of Aeridin from other constituents of W. volubilis. Further, the recovery value of Aeridin was found to be about 101 %, which shows the reliability and suitability of the method. The validated HPTLC method was found to be simple, reproducible, accurate and precise. The structure of isolated Aeridin was characterized and confirmed by various advanced spectroscopic methods.

7. Evaluation of Effects of Black Tea and Coffee on Learning Process and Memory in Healthy Human Volunteers
Suraj Baheti , N Saraswathy, Kala Suhas Kulkarni
The study was conducted in healthy human volunteers adhering to good clinical practices and institutional human ethical norms. All the volunteers have completed the study. There were no dropouts and no signs and symptoms of any adverse effect after consumption of the beverages. This indicates the positive compliance in the study. The overall effect observed in the study that the consumption of beverages Black Tea and Coffee increases alertness in the volunteers and it helps to facilitate the performance and thus enhance the memory. This is confirmed by the level of confidence development in the volunteers to perform the psychopharmacological parameters. The parameters selected in the study are the functional characteristics of thought process, learning and memory. The reduction in reaction time after the consumption of Black tea and Coffee signifies the effect on learning process. The improvisation of this facilitates the memory in the form of retention and its implementation in developing skills. Clinically these results are very promising and can be extrapolated for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, dementia where at least partial effect on the process of learning and recent memory. Black Tea and Coffee are consumed many times by the individuals in the situations like appearing for examinations where the level of performance is of significance to have optimum outcome. These may be recommended for short time use. However, the additional effects may be confirmed in larger studies in controlled manner.

8. Pharmacopoeial Standardization of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn.
Gupta V, Bansal P, Garg A, Meena AK
The present communication attempts to investigate pharmacognostical and phytochemical details of Hibiscus rosasinensis, Linn. (Malvaceae). Results of microscopic studies of leaf show chained midrib of leaf, small and numerous epidermal cells, calcium oxalate crystals and absence of trichomes on both upper and lower surface. The Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, proteins and amino acids in chloroform and alcoholic extract out of six extraction solvents used for these studies. HPTLC studies reveal that alcoholic extract gives 8 spots and chloroform extract depicts 5 spots on the TLC plate. Powdered drug analysis after treatment with 17 different reagents emitted various colour radiations under UV and visible light which may provide a lead in identification of the drug in powder form. The study revealed specific identities for Hibiscus rosa- sinensis, Linn which may play a key role in identification of plant and can be useful in standardization of the herbal drugs.

9. Study of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Lagerstroemia lanceolata Wall (Seed) Extract
O. G. Bhusnure, K. R. Alagawadi, P. S. Giram, B. N. Poul
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were examined in purified light Petroleum ether (40-60°) extract (LLW Oil) of the Lagerstroemia Lanceolata wall seed. The analgesic activity effects of graded doses of extract (in LLW10-200 mg/kg p.o.) were evaluated in rat against acetic acid induced writhing (chemically induced pain) and hot-plate method (thermally induced pain). The analgesia produced by extract was compared with the standard analgesics diclofenac sodium (DIS, 5 mg/kg p.o.). Acute anti-inflammatory activity of fraction was also evaluated in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model at the doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg i.p. and compared with diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg i.p.). In comparison to control group purified Pt. ether extract showed highly significant, dose dependent analgesic activity against thermally as well as chemically induced pain (p < 0.001). LLW at the dose of 40 mg/kg has shown highly significant analgesic activity (p < 0.001) as compared to diclofenac sodium at the doses employed. In comparison to control, LLW at the employed doses produced marked acute anti-inflammatory activity in rats (p < 0.001). The results suggest that the Pt. ether extract (LLW20-200) of seed has active herbal principles which possess significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential as reflected by the parameters investigated. Further investigations are, however, necessary to explore mechanism(s) of action involved in these pharmacological activities.

10. In vivo passive and iontophoretic delivery of lisinopril using Wistar rat model
Abdul Faruk, Mohan Paul Singh Ishar
In-vivo studies using animal model were carried out to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of passive and iontophoretically delivered lisinopril. Serum concentration versus time profiles from intravenous (IV), oral and iontophoretic routes were analyzed using non-compartmental analysis using TOPFIT ver. 2.0. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC0–inf, terminal elimination rate constant (λz), clearance/F and Cmax, were calculated. To validate the calculations involved in non-compartmental analysis, the serum profiles were fitted using TOPFIT (ver. 2.0) software to the onecompartmental continuous infusion model with zero order absorption. The results of the IV bolus administration of lisinopril showed that the pharmacokinetics could be described by a two-compartment model. The bioavailability of passive and iontophoretically delivered lisinopril was 62.21 and 82.87 %, respectively which is significantly higher as compared to oral route (5.67 %). The corresponding values of Cmax were found to be 87, 95, 15.33 and 25.6 ng/ml, respectively for oral, IV bolus, passive and iontophoretically delivered lisinopril. The tmax for oral and IV route was 10 and 5 min, respectively, while it was 9.0 h both for passive and iontophoretic mediated transport of drug. The simple zero-order input rate and clearance effectively defined the delivery pattern of lisinopril from the iontophoretic patch. Good correlation was observed between the experimental data and data predicted by the model. Clearance estimated by the model is similar to the clearance calculated from intravenous administration, which supports the assumptions in the calculation of dose delivered by non-compartmental analysis.

11. Evaluation of Prescription Pattern and Cost-Effectiveness Among Patients Associated With Gynaecological Diseases In Government Maternity Hospital, Lucknow (U.P)-India
Rohit K. Verma, Kiran Chaudhary, Amita Rai, Ayush Garg, Manisha Pandey,Shubhini A Saraf
Drug is a very important link between producer and consumer. Thus a study on prescribing pattern and pharmacoeconomics helps in accessing the quality of health care services. A retrospective study was undertaken in the OBG Department, Maternity Hospital, Lucknow, India. A clinical survey was conducted on 119 gynaecological patients, out of which 19 patients were excluded according to exclusion criteria. Audited patients were in the age group of 18 to 60 years. Clinical data indicated that 22 % of women suffered from irregular menses, leucorrhoea (18 %), vulvitis (16 %), osteoporosis (15 %), recurrent bleeding (11 %), uterus inflammation (8 %), endocervitis (2 %), feranculitis (2 %) and breast pain (2 %). Clinical survey revealed that 80 % women were prescribed minerals and vitamins, 56 % Analgesics, 47 % Antibiotics, 42 % Antimicrobials, 39 % Iron tonics, 23 % Steroids, 6 % Anti-allergic, 4 % antispasmodic and 6 % Antiinflammatory therapy at the mean age of 38 years. It was observed that the drugs prescribed were correct for the current diagnosis and treatment. There were no any earlier records pertaining to their medical history and treatment regimen already undertaken. Most of the physicians were very much aware about diagnosis and treatment of gynaecological problems. Physicians are required to pay more attention while prescribing drugs involved in long term therapy with serious side effects such as antibiotics, steroidal drugs etc. Patients on long term drug therapy should undergo proper counseling and regular monitoring regarding the use of drugs. Pharmacoeconomical steps taken up by the hospital is highly appreciated. But care should be taken that the outcome of the therapy is not compromised while providing cost benefits to the patients.

12. Withdrawn by authors

13. Embelin – A HPLC Method For Quantitative Estimation In Embelia ribes
Rahul Shelar, Chandra Maurya, Prafulchandra Tekale, Kamlesh Katkar, Vinayak Naik, Ashish Suthar, Vijay Singh Chauhan
An RP-HPLC method with photodiode array detection was established for the determination of major constituent, Embelin in Embelia ribes samples. The Embelin was separated by using isocratic mode consisting of 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid in water and methanol (in proportion of 88:12) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Under these conditions, a plot of integrated peak area versus concentration of Embelin was found to be linear over the range of 5.0-75.0 μg/mL, with a relative standard deviation of 0.61-0.96 %. The limit of detection was 20 ng on column and the limit of quantitation was 50 ng on column. The determination of the Embelin content in various solvent extracts exhibited a mean content of 0.44-33.0 % w / w. Recovery experiments led to a mean recovery rate of 96.49 ± 2.42 %. The proposed method is less time-consuming, sensitive and reproducible and is therefore suitable for routine analysis of Embelin in various extracts of E. ribes.

14. Synthesis And In-Vitro Anti-Microbial Activity Of Some New N-Phenyl Acetamide Derivatives
Singh Pramod, Daniel Vivek , Nema R. K., Joshi Ankur, Bhatt Govinda
The purpose of the research work is to synthesised a new potent antimicrobial derivatives of N-phenyl acetamide. A series of new methyl 4-oxo-4-(Piperidine phenylamino) butanoate 4(a) and methyl 4-oxo-4-(Imidazole phenylamino) butanoate 4(b) were synthesized by treating N -Phenyl acetamide with methyl choloroacetate in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate to give an intermediate compound (3) which on further treatrment with piperidine and imidazole at 70o C temperature gives the new compounds 4(a) and 4(b) respectively. The structures of newly synthesised derivatives were confirmed on the basis of Melting Point, TLC, IR, NMR and spectral data. The anti microbial activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by Disc diffusion test.

15. Formulation and Evaluation of Naproxen Gel Containing Tulsi Oil as Penetration Enhancer
Gupta V, Dwivedi A, Trivedi N,   Jain NK,   Garud N,   Jain DK
The present research has been undertaken with the aim to develop a transdermal gel formulation of naproxen, which would attenuate the gastrointestinal related toxicities associated with oral administration. The potential gastrointestinal disorders associated with oral administration of naproxen (NSAID’s) can be avoided by delivering the drug to the inflammation site. Gel based formulations are better percutaneously absorbed than creams and ointment bases. It is reported that absorption profile of naproxen from carbopol gel base is better than other bases. Therefore, naproxen gel formulations were made with carbopol 940 having different concentration of tulsi oil as penetration enhancer containing 2 % of naproxen. Permeation experiments were performed on excised abdominal rat skin using Keshary Chien diffusion cell. The fixed oil of tulsi (ocimum sanctum) is reported to possess significant anti inflammatory activity. Naproxen gels containing various concentration of tulsi oil (1 %, 3 %, 5 %, and 7 %) were prepared. To assess the efficacy of formulations in-vitro release, rheological properties, drug content and skin irritation studies were performed. The results obtained were encouraging and formulation containing naproxen (2 %) and tulsi oil (5 %) found to be better than other formulations.


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