1. Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants in Comparison with Some Standard Antibiotics Demisse Dakone, Gizachew Zeleke
Ethnopharmacological relevance: An emerging of antibiotic resistance strains of bacteria brings most serious public health problems. It is therefore, important to look for more effective, safer and less toxic alternative options of treatment. Development of new antibacterial agents from plant extract is among the proposed solutions to overcome this problem. Aim of the study: To study the antibacterial activity evaluation of Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link. (L. aspera), Solanum incanum L. (S. incanum), and Hydnora johanis A.B. (H. johanis) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus feacalis (E. feacalis) in comparison with GEN (Gentamicin), CIPRO (Ciprofloxacin), PCN (Penicillin), Ampicillin (AMP) and TCN (Tetracycline). Materials and Methods: Following plant material collection and extraction; disc diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity test. Results: The plants showed a promising broad spectrum of activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacals) test bacteria with growth inhibition zone values ranging from 7.40±0.6-16.70±0.4 mm. Compared with standard antibiotics; most active crude extracts were showed comparative antimicrobial effect as do penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Acetone extract of H. johani on E. coli (16.70±0.4) and ethyl acetate extract of S. incanum on S. typhimurium (16.0±2.0) were demonstrated promising activity than the activity demonstrated by PCN, AMP and TCN. Ethanol extract of L. aspera on S. aureus (16.40±1.1) were also displayed better activity than the activity of AMP. Conclusions: Over all, the present investigation proves the scientific basis for the traditional use of L. aspera, S. incanum and H. johanis as antibacterial agent for the treatment of infections caused by E. coli, S. typhimurium, S. aureus and E. feacalis.
2. Regional Prevalence and Evaluation of Carbapenem Resistant A. Baumannii Fiji E, B Anandharaj
Acinetobacterspp is an opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial outbreaks and its increasing antibiotic resistance make treatment difficult. Hence, a preliminary study was conducted on the prevalence of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp infections at Sunrise Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital in Kochi, kerala. Various clinical specimens like blood, urine, abscess, vaginal swab were analyzed and 15% of the isolates was confirmed and identified as to be resistant to carbapenems.