1. Comparative Study on Family Zingiberaceae Plants Used In Ayurvedic Drugs
Ajay Kumar Meena, M M Rao, Komal Preet, M M Padhi, Arjun Singh, Ramesh Babu
The present article attempts to compare physico-chemical parameters of Zingiber officinalis Roxb., Hedychium spicatum Ham ex Smith , Curcuma longa Linn belonging to common family Zingiberaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value. Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105°C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash and Thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.
2. Evaluation of Immunostimulant Activity of the Root and Leaf of Polyscias Balfouriana Marginata
Sandhya S, Vinod KR, Madhu Divakar C, Nema RK
The Polyscias balfouriana is an ornamental plant widely available throughout the tropical region. In some collections the plant is known as Scutellarium or Dinner Plate Aralia or Balfour Polyscias. It belongs to the family Araliaceae. The plant is rich in triterpenoid saponins. In the present work the immunostimulant activity was performed on the leaf and root of the plant. The plant parts were extracted with n-butanol to obtain the saponin fraction; hence it was designated as NBS. The carbon clearance test and the milk induced leukocytosis were determined. Since the family and chemical constituents were similar to Panax ginseng, the root powder of it was used as the standard. It was found that the root extract of Polyscias balfouriana showed better carbon clearance and milk induced leukocytosis activity than the leaf extract on comparison with the standard ginseng which gave the highest positive response.
3. Comparative Study of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Leaf Extracts of Tecoma stans (L.) on Adult Indian Earthworms
Kumanan R, Sridhar C, Jayaveera KN, Sudha S, Rubesh Kumar S, Duganath N
Tecoma stans (L.) belonging to the family Bignoniaceae, is an ornamental tropical shrub predominately found in India, America, tropical and subtropical Africa, the Pacific islands, and Australia. The present study is an attempt to explore the anthelmintic activity of aqueous, alcoholic, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract (sohxlet) of leaves of Tecoma stans (L). The study was carried out for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma). All leaf extracts showed anthelmintic activity at 100, 200 and 500 µg/ml concentration. The activities were compared with the standard drug-Albendazole. Aqueous, alcoholic, hydro-alcoholic methanolic extract (sohxlet) of leaves of Tecoma stans showed better anthelmintic activity than the standard drugs. When the dose of the extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Alcoholic extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the hydroalcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts (sohxlet) of Tecoma stans. The data were verified as statistically significant by using one way ANOVA at 1 % level of significance (p<0.001).
4. Phytochemical Studies of the Grains of Paspalum scrobiculatum
Bhatia Gaurav, Joshi Shweta, Barve Ashutosh, Nema RK, Joshi Ankur, Gehlot Sonia
The grains of Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. Commonly known as Kodo millet was investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. According to traditional practice the grains of Paspalum scrobiculatum is used for the management of diabetes. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash), Extractive value and total phenolic contents were studied dry weight. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of tannins, phenolics, saponins, proteins and carbohydrates.
5. Hepatoprotective Effect of Syzygium aromaticum Extract on Acute Liver Injury Induced by Thioacetamide
Ram Prasad, Shakir Ali, Luqman Ahmad Khan
Dried flower bud of S. aromaticum contains eugenol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, β-sitosterol, ascorbic acid, and other phytoconstituents. This study reports that a 50 % ethanolic extract of S. aromaticum can attenuate liver necrosis in animal model. Liver injury was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (400 mg/kg b. w.). Oral administration of the extract (800 mg/kg b. w.) for three consecutive days could significantly ameliorate the changes associated with hepatic injury, particularly the levels serum biochemical markers of liver injury and oxidative stress. The protective action may be attributed to eugenol, which has been shown to be present in the test extract. The study has implication in human as rat model of hepatic injury produced by thioacetamide mimics the changes observed in alcohol induced liver injury in human.
6. Impact of Counseling on Diabetic Patients
Khan NA, Saxena S, Handa S, Habib A, Abid M, Patra A, Kamal Kishore
In the last two decades role of pharmacist has changed dramatically. At present the pharmacists are becoming more patient oriented than product. Patient counseling by pharmacist deals with providing information to the patients regarding the disease, medications and lifestyle modifications. This study was conducted during Jan 2009 to April 2009 in Moradabad, (U.P) India to determine whether counseling for diabetes patients regarding disease, medication, diet/ nutrition and exercise can improve glycemic control and associated complications. In diabetes, self management and patient adherence to the prescribed medication and lifestyle modifications is very essential and pharmacist can play an important role in counseling. These studies suggest that it is essential to educate the patients regarding proper diet, exercise, glucose control and periodic consultations. In our study, it was found that the most commonly affected domains of quality of life questionnaire in population were freedom to eat, freedom to drink and enjoyment of food, followed by family life and sex life of the individuals. Remaining domains such as, ease of travel, working life and finance were also affected significantly. The counseling plan should address the non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures. Education regarding the acute and chronic complications should be given. There is considerable evidence that Pharmacist provided counseling enhances the patient compliance and improves the quality of life outcomes in diabetes.
7. Study of Crocus sativus as Complexion Promoter in Skin Care
Vyas L. K., Tapar K. K., Nema R. K.
The combined complexion effect of dry extract from the stigmata of Crocus sativus was inoculated in various cosmetic products. Extraction of dried pulverized stemens of the flowers was carried out by maceration method using ethyl acetate: isopropyl alcohol: Water (65:25:10) as solvent system. The dry extract was inoculated in o/w cream, lotion and face powder formulation. The complexion properties were studied by patch test on various subjects in age group of 18 to 28 years. Results of complexion property clearly observed the shine and lightening of skin due to crocin and crocetin present in saffron.
8. New Trends of Diabetes Therapy type II of the Animal Model
Humaira Farooqi, Hamid Nawaz Khan, Richa Gupta, Anwar Habib, Parwaiz Akhtar, Showkat Rasool Mir, Md. Akhlaquer Rahman
There is a growing consensus that blood glucose control, and postprandial control in particular, must become more aggressive if we are to stem the growing tide of diabetes related complications and mortality. For most people, this means that insulin therapy must begin earlier and that insulin must be titrated sufficiently to achieve tighter glycemic targets. The limitations of traditional treatment regimens, delivery devices and conventional insulin formulations, in conjunction with patient factors, have prevented the majority of people with type-2 diabetes from achieving recommended glycemic targets. Fortunately, incretin mimetics, DPP-4 inhibitors and techniques like bariatric surgery are now available. This review will discuss features and of these new tools, compare the benefits of using these drugs versus conventional drugs and also the use of medicinal plants in this area. Once physicians become familiar with these tools and incorporate them into daily practice, they will be able to better tailor diabetes self-management programs to the needs of individual patients. The result will be that more patients should be able to reach recommended glycemic targets with greater convenience and safety than has previously been available. As this metabolic disorder is like an epidemic, intense research is required and many scientists are working on potential targets to control it.
9. Plant Review: Butea monosperma
Sindhia V.R., Bairwa R.
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze (Syn. Butea frondosa; Family Fabaceae) , This is a moderate sized deciduous tree which is widely distributed throughout India , Burma and Ceylon, popularly known as ‘dhak’ or ‘palas’, commonly known as ‘Flame of forest’. The family Fabaceae compromises of 630 genera and 18,000 species. The crude extracts of various parts and pure isolates of Butea monosperma was reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activities. Butea monosperma have been found to possess tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac and diuretics properties. The widespread uses of Butea monosperma in traditional systems of medicine have resulted in their extensive chemical analysis for their bio-active principles. This article briefly reviews the botany, chemistry and pharmacology of Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze.
10. Recent Advancements for Triazoles as Anticancer Agents
Yashwant, Sharma B.K., Srivastava B, Vandana Sharma
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The present work gives the recent advancements for triazoles as anticancer agents. Triazoles are known to have a large spectrum of potential anticancer, antimitotic and antifungal properties. With an improved understanding of the genes and pathways responsible for cancer initiation and progression, cancer drug development has undergone a paradigm change in recent years, from predominantly cytotoxic agent-based therapy to therapy aimed at molecular and genetic targets