International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

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1. The Effect of Vitrification of Oocytes Cumulus Complex Apoptosis of Mice (Mus musculus) to Apoptosis, Rate of Fertilization and Embryo Quality
Widjiati Widjiati, Aulanni’am Aulanni’am, Viski Fitri Hendrawan
The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of cumulus oocyte complex (COC) after vitrification process toward apotosis of COC, fertilization rate and embryo quality. Frozen occurs during the cold shock that can lead to changes in the molecular level COC. These changes will affect the quality of frozen thawed oocytes after COC. The study used two groups, There are COC not frozen and frozen COC. Parameter observed were apotosis of blastomere cells, fertilization rate and embryo quality. Apoptosis of COC were observed with tunnel apoptec staining, fertilization rates were measured based on number of zygotes and embryo quality were observed through number of blastocyst.  The data of apotosis of blastomere cells were analyzed by Kruscal Wallis. The result showed that   the apoptosis number, fertilization rate, and morula number between are significantly (p<0.05) between groups.  The administration of frozen COC increase number of apoptotic blastomer  cells, decreased fertilization rate up to 51.1%  and embryo quality up to 69.2 %. In conclusion, Frozen on COC increased apotosis of COC, decreased both of fertilization rate and embryo quality. The embryo Frozen of vitrification is required in the ART technology necessary to add an antioxidant to improve the fertilization rate and embryo quality.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8314

2. Evaluation of Gloriosa superba for Yield Attributing  Characters and Quantification of Colchicine Originated from Different Agro Climatic Zones of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh
Arun kumar P, Elangaimannan R
The study was conducted to evolve Gloriosa superba for yield characters and alkalodi content for selecting elite genotypes for comercial exploitation. The genotypes were sowm in Variyankaval village, Udayarpalayam taluk of Ariyalur district, Tamil Nadu. The highest mean value for fresh and dry seed yield was observed in Chittor local. The genotype Mulanur local has recorded the highest mean value for number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod and Arupukotai local excelled the general mean for the traits seeds per pod, fresh and dry seed yield and also for tuber characters.
An investigation was carried out to quantify the colchicine (alkaloid) present in tubers
by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The genotypes collected from Arupukotai recorded the highest colchicine content (0.760 mg/g) followed by Chittoor (0.578 mg/g) and Mulanur (0.496 mg/g) and there by these three genotypes were utilized for further crop improvement.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8315

3. Comparative Study to Evaluate the Surface Detail Reproduction of Dental Stone after Immersion in Various Different Disinfectant Solutions, Under Stereomicroscope 10 X Magnification –An In-Vitro Study
Rathika Rai, M A Easwaran, K T Dhivya
Aim: To evaluate the surface detail reproduction of dental stone this is immersed in different disinfectant solution and studied under stereomicroscope. Methodology:  Total number of 30 specimens of dental stone  (Type III) were made  with measurements of 1.5cm diameter and 1cm height .This samples are divided in to 3 groups group A,B,C. were A is immersed in Distilled water which was taken as control group ;B is immersed in 2% Glutaraldehyde  and C is immersed in 5%sodium hypochlorite. Each specimen were immersed in the disinfectant solution for 15 minutes and dried under room temperature for 24 hrs. After 24 hrs each specimens are studied under stereomicroscope for surface details. Result: The results showed no significant difference in the surface irregularities and porosities for a group 1 and group 2 except group 3 which showed significant increase in the porosities, surface irregularities and erosions after disinfection with 5% NaHOCl by immersion method. Conclusion: The surface detail reproduction capacity of die stone was adversely affected when 5% Sodium hypochlorite was used as disinfectant solution when compare d to control group and 2% Glutaraldehyde.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8316

4. Effect of Jatropha curcas Latex on L3 Haemonchus contortus Larval Motility
Noorzaid Muhamad, SyahirahSazeli, Resni Mona, Jannathul Firdous
The anthelmintic resistance has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and thus has awakened interest in the study of plants extract as a source of anthelmintics. These experiments were carried out to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of Jatrophacurcas latex extract against Haemonchuscontortus larval motility. To evaluate the larvicidal activity, H.contortus L3 were incubated with the extracts with varying concentration of 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL  at 27°C for 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test (P<0.05). The extracts showed dose-dependent larvicidal effects. These results suggest that J.curcas can be used to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8317

5. Development of Brucellosis Vaccine Based on Determinant Antigenic of Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) 36 KDA From Brucella abortus Local Isolate
Aulanni’am Aulanni’am, Wiwiek Tyasningsih, Dyah Kinasih Wuragil, Fedik Abdul Rantam
Brucellosis is a disease that can be prevented through vaccination. Yet, the effectiveness of the vaccination to fight this disease is considered weak. Fortunately, attempts to modify brucellosis vaccine is still keep going. Some brucellosis vaccines have been found and developed in the past time such as the vaccine B.abortus strain 19-BA and 104M which was made from weakened microbes which had been widely used in Uni Soviet and China. The other brucellosis vaccine that were used in the past were the phenolinsoluble peptidoglycan vaccine which was made in France and polysaccharide-protein vaccine which was used in Russia. This research attempted to see the determinant of antigenic Outer Membrane Protein (OM) 36 kDa Brucella abortus local isolation which has immunogenic character to be developed as an advanced brucellosis vaccine. The method used in this research was the Omp2 gene of Brucella abortus of local isolate employed the PCR technique. The result of the PCR was then sequenced to analyze the determinant antigenic and the bounding prediction of either the T cell or the B cell which were responsible for immune response. The result of this study showed that the gen Omp2 which encoded the OMP 36 kDa Brucella abortus of local isolation with primary JPF 5’ GCG CTC AGG CTG CCG ACG CAA  3’  and JPR 5’  CAT TGC GGT CGG TAC CGG AG     3’ targeted the gene 162 bp, was then translated into amino acids to be later undergo the in silico test using Kolaskar & Tongaonkar Antigenicity Prediction method. The epitope prediction resulted were MSRVCDAYGAGYFYI and TETCLRVHGYVRYD. The result of the epitope prediction of MSRVCDAYGAGYFYI showed that there was a bond with MHC I in YGAGYFYI of the 8th amino acid series to the 15th series, while the epitope prediction of TETCLRVHGYVRYD showed that there was a bond to the ETCLRVHGY of the series of amino acids number 2 to 10. Bond with MHC II existed in the amino acid series of MSRVCDAYGAGYFYI, while the bond with the B cells existed in BCSAYGA and CLRVHG amino acid series. This research has been successful in predicting the epitope of the OMP 36 kDa Brucella abortus of local isolate which had immunogenic characteristic for its ability to bond with the MHC I, MHC II and B cells.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8318

6. Assessment of Anticholinesterase Toxicity, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides-Exposed Agricultural Workers
Magda M Noshy, Amal Saad-Hussein, Eman M Shahy, Haidan M El-Shorbagy, Mona M Taha, Ebtesam A Abdel-Shafy
Among the numerous pesticides, anticholinesterase compounds are widely used. Their toxicity induced by cholinesterase inhibition at the synapses and neuromuscular junctions, leading to neurological disorders. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) has been used as sensitive biomarkers for pesticides exposure. In the present study, AChE and BuChE levels were estimated in agricultural workers exposed to carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides with average 9.8±3.5 years relative to the controls. The toxic effects of pesticides may be attributed to induction of oxidative stress and alteration in antioxidant system. Our results showed significant decrease in AChE and BuChE levels with inhibition percentage of 39% and 61% respectively, in exposed workers than controls. Additionally, there was a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress marker. Concerning antioxidant status, there was significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels while there were significant increases in activity of glutathione dependent enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transeferase (GST). On the other hands, there were significant decreases in enzymatic antioxidants, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. A negative correlation was found between BuChE activity and MDA levels. So, it was concluded that evaluation of BuChE inhibition may be sensitive tool for assessing the risk of oxidative stress induced after occupational pesticides exposure.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8319

7. The Utilization of Ftir (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) Method Combined with Chemometrics For Authentication of Indonesian Coffee Powder
Firmansyah A, Winingsih W, Soebara Y S
Analysis of natural product remain challenging issues for analytical chemist, since natural products are complicated system of mixture. The most popular methods of choice used for quality  control of raw material and finished product are high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The utilization of FTIR-ATR (Fourier Transform Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflectance) method  in natural product analysis is still limited. This study attempts to expand the use of  FTIR spectroscopy in authenticating Indonesian coffee powder.The coffee samples studied were taken from nine regions in Indonesia, namely Aceh Gayo, Flores, Kintamani, Mandheling, Papua, Sidikalang, Toraja, Kerinci and Lampung.The samples in the form of coffee bean from various regions were powdered . The next step conducted was to determine the spectrum using the FTIR-ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) using  ZnSe  crystal of 8000 resolution. Spectrum samples, then, were analyzed using chemometrics. The utilized chemometric model was the principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Based on the chemometric analysis, there are similarities between Aceh Gayo coffee with Toraja coffee, Mandailing coffee, Kintamani coffee and Flores coffee. Sidikalang coffee has a similarity to Flores coffee; Papua coffee has a similarity to Sidikalang coffee; Lampung coffee has a similarity to Sidikalang coffee, while Kerinci coffee has a similarity to Papua coffee.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8320

8. Advancement of Riluzole in Neurodegenerative Disease
Vidya Viswanad, Anand P, Shammika P
Riluzole (Rilutek®) is currently achieved usingoff indication among the treatment of medical conditions in adult patients and a lot of and a lot ofchildren. The scientist has gained more interest in the  excitotoxic hypothesis in neurodegenerative disease. Riluzole  blocks glutamatergic neurotransmission and inhibits the liberation of aminoalkanoic acid from corticostriatal neurons in-vivo. The effects of riluzole may be due to the effect of aminoalkanoic acid  that results in the inactivation of voltage-dependent metal channels terminals in resemblance with the activation of a G-protein-dependent signal transduction technique along with the blocking of postsynaptic effectsby accommodating blockade of N-methybaspartate (NMDA) receptors. Riluzole has neuroprotective properties which is responsible for the inhibition of the ischemia-evoked surge in aminoalkanoic acid that effect the glutamic-acid-uptake inhibitors.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8321

9. Triterpene and Sterols from Premna nauseosa Blanco
Phelan G Apostol, Mark Anthony G Fran, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y Ragasa
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of Premna nauseosa Blanco afforded squalene (1) and a mixture of β-sitosterol (2) and stigmasterol (3) in about 6:1 ratio.  The structures of 13 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with literature data.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8322

10. Management of Out of Specification (OOS) for Finished Product
Ravi Kiran S N, Gowrav M P, Gangadharappa H V, G Ravi
Background of the study: Difficult lies at the core of drug producer successful operation. Laboratory testing, which is compulsory by the CGMP regulations are required to check that components, containers and closures, in-process materials, and finished products conform to specifications, including stability specifications. Objective of the study: The objective of the investigation procedure should clearly state when the investigation is required, and define OOS, OOT, and aberrant results. OOS results are most often generated due to laboratory or manufacturing-related errors, the setting of inappropriate specifications, or poor method development. Materials and Methods: The current work is an effort to deliberate several aspects of finding the root cause for the OOS during the finished product analysis by using HPLC. Results and Discussion: Product’s individual unknown impurity was not in specification limit and, hence study carried out to find the root cause. Conclusion: After conducting detail investigation it was proved that an analyst conducted the analysis of the product after the due date to expiry.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8323

11. Microencapsulation and Nanoencapsulation: A Review
V Suganya, V Anuradha
Encapsulation is a process of enclosing the substances within an inert material which protects from environment as well as control drug release. Recently, two type of encapsulation has been performed in several research.  Nanoencapsulation is the coating of various substances within another material at sizes on the nano scale. Microencapsulation is similar to nanoencapsulation aside from it involving larger particles and having been done for a greater period of time than nanoencapsulation. Encapsulation is a new technology that has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries, agrochemical, food industries and cosmetics. In this review, the difference between micro and nano encapsulation has been explained. This article gives an overview of different methods and reason for encapsulation. The advantages and disadvantages of micro and nano encapsulation technology were also clearly mentioned in this paper.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8324

12. The Effectiveness of Video Education How to Use Diskus® Dry-Powder inhaler on Out-Patients Copd In Mojokerto, Indonesia
Rifaatul Laila Mahmudah, Zullies Ikawati, Djoko Wahyono
COPD therapy aims to prevent and overcome acute exacerbation on COPD which could be fatal and even lead to death. Thus, it must be prevented with optimum medication during stable condition. Bronchodilator in the form of inhalation are preferred in COPD medication because systemic bronchodilator has many side effects compared to that of topical bronchodilator (inhalation). DPI (dry-powder inhaler) has been developed and introduced to the market since 1967 as a solution or choice concerning MDI (metered-dose inhaler) setbacks where patients felt difficult in coordinating hands and lungs. Evidences suggested that multi-unit dose DPI such as Diskus® offered most reliable and consistent performance and it is preferred by patients. The improper using of inhaler is one of the main causes holding up asthma control since it can affect patients dosage intake which is not optimal. This research aimed to know the efficacy of Diskus® preparation usage education given to COPD patients. Method used in this research was one study group pre-test dan post test. The number of respondents involved in this research was 55 respondents. The result of t-test suggested that t-count is fewer than p-value (0.05) suggesting that there was difference between pre and post test score as a result of oral or motor evaluation. It is then concluded that Diskus® usage education affected the patients in the improvement of inhaler usage accuracy based on oral and motor evaluation. This research only reviewed COPD patients skill in using Diskus®, thus it is required to conduct further research to dig the understanding in the usage of Diskus® like drug indications, interval, how to notice side effects and how to overcome them. Also, this research only reviewed knowledge increase, but yet described outcome improvement from the using of COPD therapy itself.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8325

13. Prevalence of Human Intestinal Parasitic Nematode Among Out- Patients Attending Wudil General Hospital, Kano State, Nigeria
Lurwan Muazu, Yahaya Abdullahi, Zaharaddeen Umar
A prospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of human intestinal parasitic nematodes among out-patients attending Wudil General Hospital, Wudil Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria. A total of 56 stool samples were randomly collected from the outpatients; processed and examined (macroscopic and microscopic) by formal ether sedimentation techniques. The prevalence of human intestinal parasitic nematode among the patient in the study area was 46.4%. The Males had the highest (48.98%) infection rate, while females had the least (28.6%) prevalence rate, however, this is not statistically significant (p>0.05). The 36‑40years age groups had the highest prevalence of 75%, while 21‑25years age groups had the least prevalence rate of 25%, the difference in prevalence among the ages was found to be statistically not significant (p>0.05). Strongyloides stercoralis had the highest prevalence of 30.36% while Trichuris trichiura had the least prevalence rate of 3.57%, the differences among the species of human intestinal parasitic nematode was found to be statistically not significant (p>0.05). The control of human intestinal parasitic nematode should be done by adopting drug treatment for those already infected similar to the national immunization program, improve standard sanitation and health services in Wudil L.G.A, particularly the rural area.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8326

14. Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cassia occidentalis
S Srividya, G Sridevi, A G Manimegalai
The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia occidentalis (Co) were subjected to phytochemical analysis by standard qualitative analysis and the invitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by determination of total antioxidant capacity, 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and Ferric reducing anti oxidant potential (FRAP). The analyses revealed that the ethanolic extract of Co was able to efficiently scavenge the free radicals in a dose dependant manner. The results were compared with the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. The results have shown that crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Co showed excellent antioxidant activity due to the presence of bioactive compounds namely alkaloids, betacyanin, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones and emodins.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8327

15. Successful Conservative Management of Recurrent Focal Placenta Accreta, A Case Study
AlSaif Batool, Aljarrash Majeda
Placenta accreta refers to an abnormality of placental implantation in which the anchoring placental villi attach to myometrium rather than decidua, resulting in a morbidly adherent placenta. It is a life-threatening diagnosis increasing in number due to the growing number of caesarean sections. For most patients, the method of choice is elective cesarean section followed by hysterectomy. For women who wish to preserve fertility, a conservative procedure may be considered. Almost all  reported cases have known major risk factors which are previous caesarean section , current placenta previa , previous uterine surgery and known uterine anomalies .We report here an extremely rare case of recurrent focal placental accreta in 35 years old Saudi female, G3P2+0. 39 weeks pregnant, previous 1 cesarean section, breech with current focal accreta discovered late at 38wk +.Our case doesn’t have  known major or even controversial minor risk factors in her 1st accreta.Risk factors for  the second accreta were previous focal accreta at fundus and previous 1. In addition this is a successful uterine conservation for the 2nd time with no complications apart from mild bleeding of  2 liters- (the average usual bleeding is 6100 ). known complications for placental accreta include:Severe vaginal bleeding: 53 %, Sepsis: 6%, Secondary hysterectomy: 19% , death: 0.3 %  .Cesarean-hysterectomy is the best management of placenta accreta because it  has reduced mortality and morbidity as well as injuries to nearby organs and hospital stay. It is important to report this case in order to keep in mind screening for suspicious of placenta accreta during perinatal US even if the patient  has no risk factors in order  to have planned delivery  which will improve the mother and fetal outcome including most importantly decreasing the mortality rate due to postpartum hemorrhage and will increase the likelihood of successful uterine conservation especially in low parity patient.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8328

16. Sucrose and Facilitated Tucking for Pain Among Neonates Receiving Vaccination, in Puducherry
Sujatha S, Rebecca Samson, Christopher Amalraj, Sundaresan
Neglected pain in neonates leads to various ill effects and it can be prevented by using simple and safe non-pharmacological pain relieving measures. Pharmacologic agents are not recommended in neonates for acute pain due toinvasive procedures however, administration of 24% oralsucrose solutionis found to be effective. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of 24%oral sucrose in combination with Facilitated tucking during BCG Vaccination through intradermalroute in term neonates which is not done elsewhere. Fifty five healthy term neonates who fulfilled the inclusion criteria such as gestational age above 37 weeks, within 24 hoursof birth age, and neonates delivered only through spontaneous vaginal delivery were included in the study. The study intervention consists of administration of 2 ml of oral 24% sucrose 2 minutes before BCG Vaccination through intradermal route and Facilitated tuckingat the time of vaccination. The primary outcome measure of cumulative NIPS score at 0, 3,5 minuteswas not significant in both the study groups. Whereas there was significant reduction in the level of pain and mean cry time in the neonates of sucrose group. Heart rateand oxygen saturation after intradermal injection also showed significant (p < 0.001) differenceamong the neonates, who received 24% of oral sucrose& Facilitated tucking than for neonates of control group. Thus oral (24%)sucrose solution given 2 minutes before injection was effective in reducing level of neonatal pain following Intradermal Vaccination. It is a simple, safe and fast acting analgesic and should be considered for minor invasive procedures in term neonates which last for 5-7minutes.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i3.8329

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