1. NMDA Receptor and Opioid Analgesic Tolerance
Sirohi Sunil, Madia A Priyanka
Opioids, the wonderful analgesics, remain the mainstay in the clinical management of moderate to severe pain. However, development of analgesic tolerance and increase in pain sensitivity are some of the major concerns following opioid treatment. Studies suggest that NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular events play a role in mediating these effects. Moreover, NMDA receptor antagonists effectively prevent and gradually reverse opioid analgesic tolerance. Collectively, these studies unfold the involvement of NMDA receptor in opioid tolerance.
2. Abutilon indicum (Atibala): Ethno-botany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology
Kaushik P., Kaushik D., Khokra S., Chaudhary B.
Abutilon indicum (Linn.) (Malvaceae) is a shrub distributed throughout India. The various parts of the plant (leaves, roots, seeds and seed oil) are widely used by various tribal communities and forest dwellers for the treatment of variety of ailments. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as sweet, cooling, digestive, laxative, expectorant, diuretic, astringent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, demulcent and aphrodisiac. Following various folk claims for cure of numerous diseases, efforts have been made by researchers to verify the efficacy of the plant through scientific biological screenings. The plant contains saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, hexoses, n-alkane mixtures (C22-34), alkanols, and amino acids as main classes of compounds. A scrutiny of literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities like antibacterial, antipyretic, antimalarial, antifertility, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and wound healing. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnobotanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on A. indicum
3. Basics and Therapeutic Potential of Oral Mucoadhesive Microparticulate Drug Delivery Systems
Sachan Nikhil K., Bhattacharya A.
Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological are held together by means of interfacial forces, when the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local disease treatment as well as systemic drug bioavailability. Considerable attention is focused on the development of controlled drug delivery systems, offering the advantages of better therapeutic efficacy and is easier to comply with than the conventional regimens requiring more frequent dosing. The objective of this paper is to establish the procedure to study polymer bioadhesion to understand structural requirement of bioadhesive in order to design improved bioadhesive polymer for oral use.
4. In-vitro a Amylase Inhibition and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Helicteres Isora in Streptozotocin Induced Rats.
Sharma Alok , Vijayakumar M., Verma Arti Raj , Talib Md., Unnikrishnan M. K., Rao Ch. V..
In present study, in vitro α-amylase inhibition and streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress were used to evaluate hypoglycemic effects of Helicteres isora (sterculiaceae). Antidiabetic treatment with of H. isora extract (100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight) for three weeks showed significant reduction in thiobarbituriuc acid reactive substances (TBRAS) and glutathione reductase (GSH-R) in both liver and kidney. The treatment with H. isora significantly altered the glutathione (GSH) and GSH-R to be comparable with the control group. H. isora and tolbutamide treated rats showed decreased lipid peroxidation that is associated with increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).The result of this study thus shows that at 1000 µg /ml there was maximum inhibition by the H. isora extract (53.75 %). It also possesses moderate antidiabetic activity, but it exhibits potent antioxidant potential in diabetic conditions.
5. Preparation and Evaluation of Ocular Inserts Containing Brimonidine tartarate
Patel Dipti, Patel M. M., Patel N. M., Patel Manish
Ophthalmic inserts of Brimonidine Tartrate (BT) were prepared in polyvinyl alcohol-L (PVA-L) matrix. The influence of rate controlling membranes made of ethyl cellulose (EC) in combination of polyvinyl pyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) in different proportions on drug release kinetics was studied. The data were subjected to regression analysis. The physical characteristics of the films were evaluated. All the films prepared found to be uniform in thickness and in weight. In vitro results revealed that all the formulations followed super case II kinetics release (n > 1). The study confirmed the Brimonidine Tartrate can be delivered through films made of PVA-L matrix cast with EC with a combination of PVP-K30. It was also observed that increasing the proportion of PVP-K30 into EC increased the rate of release of Brimonidine Tartrate. Optimizes formulation F2 were evaluated for in vivo release characteristics using rabbits as animal models. The optimized formulation F2 was stable at accelerated storage condition 40°C / 75 % RH and nonirritant.
6. Synthesis and Antiangiogenic Activity of some Novel Combretastatin A-4 Analogues
Anurag, Pandeya S. N., Singh U. K. , Sharma P. P..
A series of Combretastatin A-4 analogues were synthesized in order to obtain new compounds with potential antiangiogenic activity. The structures of all synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of spectroscopical analytical techniques. All compounds were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activity by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay method. The compounds showed significant antiangiogenic activity. Compound 5 showed maximum activity out of all synthesized compounds.
7. Spectrophotometric Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Tenofoir Disoproxil Fumarate and Emtricitabine in Bulk Drug and Tablet Dosage form
Patel Suhela, Baghel U.S., Rajesh P., Prabhakar D., Engla G., Nagar P.N..
Two simple, accurate, economical and reproducible spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two-component drug mixture of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Emtricitabine in bulk and combined tablet dosage form had been developed. The first method employs formation and solving of simultaneous equations using 259 nm and 286 nm as two analytical wavelengths. The second method is absorption ratio method, which uses 286 nm and 247.6 nm as two analytical wavelengths. Both methods were statistically validated according to International Conference on harmonization and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method.
8. Designing, release characteristics and In-Vitro evaluation of Flurbiprofen sodium Suppositories
Varshney Himanshu M., Tanwar Y.S.
different polymeric grades of PEG (4000 and 6000) for the development of rectal drug delivery system of flurbiprofen sodium, an non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to minimize the gastric irritation of the drug upon oral administration. Suppositories were formulated by fusion method and evaluated for their physicochemical characterization followed by in vitro evaluation. Suppositories containing PEG 4000 showed a better permeation of drug with faster dissolution rate in vitro when compared with other formulations.
9. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation of Bark of Bridelia retusa Spreng
Banerjee Saurabh Kumar, Kulkarni Kala Suhas
Bridelia retusa bark has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, diarrhoea and dysentery. In view of its medicinal importance and to have taxonomic clarity about the plant the present study was done to investigate the pharmacognostic, microscopical, morphological and various chemical parameters of the bark. The studies will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.
10. Preliminary Phytochemical and Anti-asthmatic Studies on Stem Bark of Balanites roxburghii Planch.
Singh Virendra, Tripathi Priyanka, Patel J. R, Kori M. L., Dixit V. K.
The present study deals with the phytochemical screening and effect of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Balanites roxburghii Planch. on experimental models of bronchial asthma. Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds as chemical constituents. Significant increase in preconvulsion time was observed due to pretreatment with Balanites roxburghii when the guinea pigs were exposed to acetylcholine (Ach) and histamine. This bronchodilating effect of Balanites roxburghii was comparable to Ketotifen fumarate. Thus, present study revealed that the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Balanites roxburghii has significant antihistaminic (H1 receptor antagonist) activity. The Balanites roxburghii Planch. by virtue of the said action will prove to be very effective in the antihistaminic therapy of asthma.