1. Study of Micro-Organism’s Isolation from Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Study of Bacteriological Profile
Pragya Rai, Sujata Kumari, Kumar Nishant, Nageshwar Sharma
Aim: The aim of the present study to determine the bacteriological profile of acute conjunctivitis. Methods: This prospective observational study was done the Department of Ophthalmology, Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India, for 10 months This is prospective observational study with evaluation of demographic factors, associated comorbid conditions and finding causative organism i.e., bacteria gram staining culture methods and biochemical reaction. Results: All 90 patients underwent Gram stain and bacterial culture out of 90, 65 patients were culture positive and other was negative. In the present study, the most common organism isolated Coagulase positive staphylococci 44.44% followed Klebsiella pneumoniae with 12.22%, Pseudomonas 5.56%, Diptheroids 3.33% and least Alkaligenes fecalis was 2.22%. Out of 90 patients 40 patients had a involvement of both eyes which is 44.44% and 50 patients had involvement of only one eye which is 55.56%. Complications like Petechial haemorrhages were seen in 78(86.67 %) of the cases while Punctate keratitis was seen in 7(7.78%). All the cases presented with red eyes, conjunctival congestion is seen in all the cases, lid oedema in 80(88.89%) cases, matting of eyelashes in 34(37.78%) cases and preauricular lymphadenopathy in 39(43.33%) cases, Conjunctival follicles 75(83.33%) cases and Corneal sensation was present in 80(88.89%) cases. Conclusion: The bacteriological evaluation of conjunctivitis provides to the ophthalmologist a working knowledge of the causal microbes, their common presentations, clinical course and antibiotic sensitivity patterns along with confirming the clinical diagnosis.

2. Intraocular Pressure Assessment and Comparison in Diabetes Mellitus and Non-Diabetics
Sujata Kumari, Pragya Rai, Nishant Kumar, Nageshwar Sharma
Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the intraocular pressure in diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic’s individuals. Methods: This prospective observational study was done in the Department of Ophthalmology, Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India for 1 year, all the Patients having diabetes mellitus on treatment and non-diabetic individuals was included in this study. Two groups were formed which includes Group A constituting diabetes mellitus patients and Group B constitutes non-diabetic individuals. Detailed history of diabetes mellitus patient was taken regarding duration of diabetes, treatment, fasting, post prandial blood sugar levels and HbA1c was recorded. Intra ocular pressure was compared between Group A and Group B, to correlate intra ocular pressure in relation to duration of diabetes mellitus and different stages of diabetic retinopathy. Results: 160 patients were included in our study. 68 patients had Type 2 diabetes mellitus (all were non-insulin dependent) and 12 patients had Type 1 diabetes mellitus (all were insulin dependent), and 80 patients were non-diabetics subjects. Mean age of non-diabetics was 47.98±10.33 years and that of diabetics 50.88±10.36 years (p valve 0.24) statistically not significant. In those 80 diabetic patients 55 were male and 25 were female. Mean age of male subjects was 52.88±10.69 years and that of female was 51.87±10.67 years in diabetic group which was not statistically significant (p value 0.27). Mean intra-ocular pressure higher (18.33±3.02 mmHg) in diabetic patients as compared with (16.12±2.97 mmHg) in non-diabetic, p value < 0.0001 which is statistically significant. Mean intra ocular pressure was (19.88±2.77mmHg) in diabetic patients with duration greater than 10 years as compared with (19.03±3.03mmHg) in diabetic patients with duration less than 10 years, p value <0.27which is not significant. Mean intra-ocular pressure (20.37±2.99 mmHg) higher in diabetic patients with HbA1c value >6.5% as compared (19.02±2.59 mmHg) with diabetic patients with HbA1c value <6.5%, p value < 0.0005 which is statistically significant. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for raised IOP. Tight glycemic control prevents the rise in IOP. Patients with poor glycemic control were found to be more prone to raised IOP. Diabetic patients should be regularly screened for IOP so that burden ocular morbidity due to glaucoma can be reduced.

3. The Effect of Health Education and Screening Site on Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Compliance in A Rural Bihar Population: An Analytical Research
Prashant Kumar, Anurag Verma
Aim: Effect of health education and screening location on compliance with diabetic retinopathy screening in a rural population of Bihar. Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College Hospital (ANMMCH), Gaya, Bihar, India for 1 year. The population is predominantly rural. The blocks were grouped as facilities A and B: screening for DR in CHCs. Health education was not imparted in A but was imparted in B. Facilities C and D: screening in PHCs. Health education was not imparted in C block but was imparted in D. The health education intervention in the two settings was delivered by Village Level Health Workers (VHWs). Blindness and visual impairment were classified as per the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Results: A total of 1154 people with diabetes out of 6910 registered (16.70%) were screened for DR in the four blocks over the 3‑month period. The mean age of those screened was 56.9 ± 12 years and 52% were male. The uptake of screening varied by facility, the highest uptake was in the block with PHC level screening with health education and provision of transport to PHCs from villages (29.78%) while the lowest was in the block with CHC level screening without health education (9.78%). The uptake was significantly higher in the facilities with health education than in those without (17.62% and 16.06%, respectively, P < 0.01), and was significantly higher in blocks with PHCs level screening with provision of transport to PHCs from villages than CHCs level screening (22.35% and 12.10%, respectively, P = <0.001). A third of those screened had some degree of visual impairment: 7.97% (92) were blind, 6.85% (79) had severe visual impairment, 20.45% (236) had moderate visual impairment, and 64.73% (747) had mild or no visual impairment. There was not much difference in visual status between the people who did or did not receive health education. Fundus images were gradable in 87% (1004/1154) of those screened. In the gradable images, 9.18% (106/1154) had any DR and 3.81% (44/1154) had STDR. Conclusion: Conducting DR screening closer to the place of living at PHCs with the provision of transport and health education was more effective, resulting in an increase in the uptake of DR screening by people with known diabetes in rural Bihar.

4. Diabetic Retinopathy Awareness Assessment Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Bihar
Anurag Verma, Sharfuddin Ahmad
Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of diabetic retinopathy among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Bihar region. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross sectional, non-randomized, questionnaire-based study conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology Vardhman Institute of Medical Sciences, Pawapuri, Bihar, India, for 1 year. A knowledge, attitude, practice questionnaire was prepared and pretested in a sample group of representative population. The response was analyzed as to whether the questions were understood or not. Social workers were trained in administering questionnaire. Diabetic patients were given questionnaires at primary health centres and filled in the presence of social workers. Results: Out of the 140 patients, 76(54.29%) had no knowledge of diabetic retinopathy compared to 64(45.71%) who had knowledge. This was statistically significant with p value <0.001. Knowledge was more in age group less than 25 years (68.75%) and least in 35 to 45 age group (48.84%) which was statistically significant with p value <0.001. There was no significant association between duration of diabetes and knowledge of diabetic retinopathy. About 73.44 % of individuals in knowledge group had right attitude which was significantly higher than non-knowledge group (56.58%) with a p value <0.001. Regarding source of information, 51.43% of patients in knowledge group got information about diabetic retinopathy from physicians, 12.14% from eye specialists, 10.71% from reading books, 10.71% from various media and 15% from other sources like family and friends. Conclusion: We concluded that increasing knowledge about diabetic retinopathy through awareness campaigns can improve attitude & practice. Early detection & timely intervention can help in preventing sight-threatening complications.

5. Recovery of Smell and Taste Loss in COVID-19 Patients
Akshay Berad, Arvind Kumar, Charu Mishra, Yogesh kumar Yadav
A significant proportion of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 report a new onset of smell or taste loss. The duration of the chemosensory impairment and predictive factors of recovery are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the recovery of smell and taste loss in COVID-19 patients who suffered from varying disease severity and chemosensory impairment severity. Subjects above age of 18 years who were infected with covid 19 virus and recovered from Covid 19 infection were included in this study. This was questionnaire-based study. Questions   regarding features of loss of smell and taste sensations in covid 19 patients were asked with help of Google forms.102 subjects participated in this study. 33.33% subjects regained smell sensation in 7 days, 51.38% regained smell sensation in 8-14 days and 15.27% had taken more than 14 days to regain smell sensation. 30.18 % subjects had taste recovery in less than 7 days.  58.49% subjects had recovery of taste in 8 to 14 days. 11.32 % subjects had regained of taste in more than 2 weeks. Recovery of chemosensitive dysfunction occurred within 1–3weeks; most of them recovered within 2 weeks. This means the dysfunction is transient in most of the cases and reversible.

6. Histopathological Study of Endometrium in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital of South West Bihar
Manjari, Rajendra Kumar
Background: Endometrium is sensitive to sex hormones and abnormal uterine bleeding is prevalent in all age group females which cause anemia and affects quality of life. Pattern of endometrial pathology diagnosis is vital to know the proper cause of bleeding to maintain clinicians conversant in making their management strategy. Methods: Study of endometrial biopsy was done retrospectively for a period of 1 ½ years. After processing of tissues, slides stained with hematoxylin & eosin by conventional method was examined microscopically. A statistical analysis between endometrial histopathology and mean age of presentation was done using Chi square test. Results:  After exclusion due to various reasons, 197 samples were enlisted for reviewing and final diagnosis was made. Endometrial hyperplasia emerged the commonest with 29.4% mostly in reproductive age group, followed by proliferative endometrium 20.3%, atrophy endometrium 16.24%, chronic endometritis 9.64%, endometrial polyp 8.63%, disordered proliferative endometrium 7.61% and secretory endometrium 6.6%. The endometrial carcinoma was diagnosed in only 1.52% of cases mostly in postmenopause females. The menorrhagia was the most common complaint overall (48.2%). Conclusion: The D & C method is suitable, but a newer technique has more scope. The commonest endometrial pathology in this study came out to be endometrial hyperplasia. For that unplanned use of hormone therapy is to be avoided.