International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. Stability of Biochemical Analytes in Reconstituted Lyophilised Controls; Deionised Water Vs Ethanediol
Rajeswari. S, Emila S, Ebenezer William W, Swaminathan. S
This paper compares the stability of commercial accuracy controls reconstituted with 15%(V/V) ethanediol with the conventional method of reconstituting with deionsed water. Two vials of the same batch of Beckman Coulter lyophilised control was used for this study.  One vial was reconstituted with deionsed water and the other with 15% (V/V) ethanediol.  Each lot was aliquoted into several vials (0.3 ml each) and both preparations were stored at        -200C.  Assays for a total of 23 biochemical analytes were carried out using each lot on the same day.  This exercise was done at regular intervals of time upto one month.  Mean and %CV values for each analyte in each preparation was then calculated and the outcome analysed. The interassay %CV obtained for a majority of analytes during one month were less compared to controls reconstituted with deionsed water.  These data strongly support that lyophilised controls reconstituted with 15% (V/V) ethanediol shows better stability compared to controls reconstituted with deionsed water. The outcome of this study confirms that commercial controls used in clinical laboratories shows less day to day variations and long term stability when reconstituted with 15% (V/V) ethanediol than with deionised water.  Such a procedure will help clinical laboratories to use controls reconstituted with 15%(V/V) ethanediol economically for a longer period of time to save time, labour and cost on commercial controls.

2. Local Anesthetics in Dentistry – Newer Methods of Delivery
Yen Lai Kee Second, Prasanna Neelakantan
Fear of pain is the most common reason for patients to defer dental treatment. Most dental procedures employ administration of local anaesthesia, but this fear of a “needle prick” and the pain associated with the same needs to be offset by the dental practitioner. Technological innovations have provided with methods of delivering local anaesthesia painlessly. This increases patient comfort, compliance and the trust they have in the dentist. This review discusses the newer methods of delivering painless local anaesthesia in the oral cavity.

3. Availability, Cost and Affordability of Antimalarial Medicines in India!
Akram Ahmad, Isha Patel, Sudeepa Sanyal, R.Balkrishnan, G.P.Mohanta
Amidst millions of malarial cases witnessed in India every year, access to quality anti-malarial medications is a problem. The availability, price and affordability of medications are the three important determinants of patients receiving effective healthcare services. The present study was conducted to evaluate the availability, cost and affordability of anti-malarials in India. This prospective, observational study was conducted in Cuddalore district in Tamil Nadu, India from August to September 2011. Three types of medication costs were taken into consideration for calculation purposes, the highest and the cheapest branded medication costs in private pharmacy and the Jan-Aushadhi prices. Affordability was calculated for the agriculture workers and wages fixed by government of tamilnadu for different levels of skills categorized, who were consuming the medications at the time. Total six drugs included in the study according to new treatment guidelines of malaria. There was 15.5% to 230% price variation between minimum and maximum costs of  branded anti-malarials respectively. For treating Plasmodium Vivax cases of malaria; unskilled and highly skilled workers had to spend a minimum of 0.32 and 0.28 wage days respectively and a maximum of 0.43 and 0.35 wage days respectively in private pharmacies. The ACT therapy required for treating severe malaria cases(Sulfadoxime+Pyrimethamine, Artemether, Arteether, Quinine) were unavailable in Jan-Aushadhi facilities. Challenges in improving access to essential anti-malarials persist mainly due to disparity in the prices of the branded and generic anti-malarials, lack of these medications in Jan-aushadhi stores which provide them lower cost to poor people and inability of Indians earning low wages to purchase them at high prices from private pharmacies who stockpile them.

4. Analgesics Following Mandibular Third Molar Surgery
Nazar. M.N., Puthiriraj. V
Surgical extraction of third molars is a commonly performed clinical procedure and is usually associated with postoperative pain, swelling and trismus. Several studies have compared the drugs used to control postoperative pain after surgical removal of third molars. The adverse effects of the wisdom tooth surgery on the quality of life has been reported to show a three-fold increase in patients who experience pain, swelling and trismus alone or in combinations; compared to those who were asymptomatic. This article reviews the various analgesics used in third molar surgery and emphasizes the necessity for better pain, swelling and trismus control in patients who undergo this procedure.

5. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Selected Nigerian Foods and Comparison of Their Bacteriocins Activities
Babatunde David Arimah, Oladejo Peter Ogunlowo, Muritala Ayofe Adebayo, Christiana Jesumirhewe
Three fermented food samples used for this study were fura, wara and nunu, after collection and inoculation in peptone water, these samples were kept in refrigerator at 5oC for further analysis. After serial dilutions, 0.2 ml of 10-4 dilution factor from each sample was transferred into 20 ml of sterile De-Mann, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS) medium, the plates were labeled as “F (fura), W (wara) and N (nunu)” respectively. All distinct and well isolated colonies were sub-cultured and examined for various morphological characteristics. Different species of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Lactococcus isolated were subjected to biochemical tests to identify the species. Based on the morphological appearance three genuses of lactic acid bacteria from the samples were isolated. These bacteria were sub cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 32oc, after 24hrs, they were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. The supernatant containing the bacteriocins were collected. The antimicrobial assay was performed on six bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis) using agar well diffusion as described by Schillinger and Lucke (1989). After incubation, the plates were examined for zones of inhibition. Three replicates were made for each bacterium and the average activity was recorded. The results showed varied inhibitory effects of the bacteriocins on the clinical isolates, when these bacteriocins activity was compared with standard drug, (15µg Gentamicin) an increased activity was observed in gentamicin. In conclusion, the zones of inhibition observed in this research strongly suggest that bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are potent in treating diseases caused by these organisms

6. Cissus quadrangularis L – Its Botany, Chemistry and Medicinal Importance: A Review
Ritesh Kaur, C.P.Malik
Herbs are known as a natural source of medicines as well as other commercial products and have gained attention for many reasons such as low price, no side effects, solutions for chronic diseases and many preventive approaches, etc. Out of 2, 50,000 higher plant species, 80,000 species are medicinal important plants. Cissus quadrangularis L. is one of the important medicinal plants, belonging to family Vitaceae and common name is ‘Hadjod’. It is a succulent plant found in warm tropical areas. The plant is well known in Ayurveda for its bone fracture healing properties. The literature survey revealed that the plant has some pharmacological properties such as free radical scavenging, anti microbial, anti bacterial, antioxidant, bone healing, anti ulcer, anti inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic properties. The plant extract is also useful in skin diseases, epilepsy, tumors, chronic ulcers, swellings, hemorrhage helminthiasis, anorexia, etc. The present review is an effort to focus on the medicinal importance of C.  quadrangular is, its Botany, phytoconstituents and pharmacological reports.

7. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Potential of Oxytocin in Allium cepa L. Root Tip Cells
Pankaj PP, Kumari N, Priadarshini A
The effects of oxytocin on mitotic cell division of Allium cepa L. were investigated to ascertain its mutagenic potential. Onion roots were treated with 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% concentrations of oxytocin and compared with control. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in mitotic indices (31.28±1.0, 31.17±0.8, 31.70±1.1) when treated with 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% concentrations of oxytocin respectively. Oxytocin induced cell mitotic aberration like polyploidy, stickiness, chromatin bridges, failure of cell-plate formation, chromosome breaks, shortening and contraction of chromosomes, vacuolization, anaphase disturbance, tumor, multipolar spindle, anaphase with laggard, telophasic bridge and chromosomal loss were also seen. We concluded from the present investigation that oxytocin is a mitotic depressor as well as mutagenic as observed in plant cell.

8. Fasting Plasma Glucose and Glycated Hemoglobin in the Prediction of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Rural Population
Gnaneswaran.S, Kuberan.D, Vinodhini.V.M, Swamy Raj. S.V, Ebenezer William.W, Kumar.J.S
The presence of Diabetic Retinopathy is the best criterion from which to compare glycemic measures because it is a specific and early clinical complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c values in predicting retinopathy among Type 2 diabetics. 200 Type 2 diabetic patients were examined for presence of diabetic retinopathy. Out of these patients, 135 were negative for retinopathy (controls) and 65 were positive for retinopathy (cases). Of the study participants, 83% belonged to age group 41- 70 years. 55% of cases and 43% of controls were females. Diabetic Retinopathy was significantly associated with HbA1c values with a cut off of 7.0% between the cases and controls, with a higher HbA1c  in cases than controls (chi square value = 14.35, df = 1, p=.000, Odds Ratio=4.46, 95% Confidence interval=1.97-10.106).  Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values with a cut off of 126 mg/dl (7mmol/l) did not show any significant difference in values among the cases and controls.

9. Time Series Trend of Bilharzial Bladder Cancer in Egypt and its relation to Climate Change: A study from 1995-2005
Samia A. Ahmed, Amal Saad-Hussein, Ayman El Feel, Manal A. Hamed
The present ecological study estimated time series trend of relative frequencies (RF) of bilharzial bladder cancer in different Egyptian governorates in relation to climate change during the period 1995-2005. Results revealed that the mean air temperature has positive trend in all the governorates and the number of days of maximum temperature of 45 °C or more was increased in Upper Egypt, but, did not experience increase in the rest of Egypt. RF was significantly declined in most of Urban, Upper and Lower Egypt, while there was no change in RF trend in Frontier governorates. Male to Female ratio was above 2:1 in most of the Urban and Upper Egyptian governorates, and less than 2:1 in Lower Egypt, except in Ismailia. In conclusion: RF of bilharzial bladder cancer seemed to be declined with time in most of the Egyptian governorates, with the increase in the air temperature. But, this relationship could not be proved and further epidemiological studies are required

10. Special Medicinal Implications of Navadhanyam
Rajalakshmi. P, Devanathan.R, Savariraj Sahayam. C
Food is the basic necessity of man. It is a mixture of different nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. These nutrients are essential for growth, development and maintenance of good health throughout life. Traditional medicine such as Siddha and Ayurveda considers food as medicine and medicine as food. The main motto of this traditional medicine is prevention of diseases rather than its cure. The system believes that proper intake of nutritious food supplements can prevent the mankind from dreadful diseases. These navadhanyam play a vital role in meeting the special needs of pregnant and lactating women and patients recovering from illness. The present study deals with the comprehensive review of the nutritive importance and therapeutic value of navadhanyam.

11. Analytical Method Development and Validation of S-Nadifloxacin in Pure Form by HPLC
Devhadrao Nitin, Bansode Ashwini, Bansode Ajit, Yeole Ravindra
A simple, rapid, precise and cost effective HPLC method was developed for S-Nadifloxacin in pure drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The separation was carried out using Zorbax SB C18 (150 × 4.6 mm ID. 5 μm particle size) column, with mobile phase comprising of 0.05 %v/v  tri fluoro acetic acid and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70 : 30 (v/v). The flow rate was 1.0ml/min and the detection was carried out using UV-visible detector at 237nm. The method was validated by evaluation of different parameters such as accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, LOD and LOQ. The retention time were found to be 10.5. Calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficient (r2) 0.999 and concentration range of 0.05 ppm to 5 ppm. The percentage recovery for S-Nadifloxacin was found to be in the range between 98.33- 100.30. Method was found to be reproducible with relative standard deviation (RSD) for intra and inter day precision less than 2%.

12. Serum Cardiac Troponin I: A Marker for Predicting Cardiac Mortality in Indian Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Kumaresan Ramanathan , Giri Padmanaban
Excess Mortality among patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) remains  high  because of an excessive cardiovascular  risk  related to  a high incidence of cardiac  hypertrophy,  cardiomyopathy,  heart  failure,  and  coronary artery disease.  Cardiac troponins are frequently elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the absence of acute myocardial infarction.  Hence, we aimed to prospectively evaluate the relationship between troponin elevations and cardiac mortality. 200  CKD  patients  from  a  private  nephrology  Out  Patient Department  (OPD) were registered in this study. 180 patients were enrolled in this present study because the 20 patients were not in regular follow up, hence excluded from the study. The patients were divided in to three groups based on the serum troponin I levels as follows: Group I : cTn I <0.09 ng/dl, Group II :cTn I 0.1-1 ng/dl  and  GroupII I :cTn I >1 ng/dl. Routine biochemical analysis and echocardiography were done in all the patients. Cardiac troponin I and High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (HSCRP) were also done in all the patients. When  compared  to  the  three  groups,  the  3rd   group  patients  with  high  cTn  I concentration (6.52 ± 2.5) had ten deaths were noted during the follow-up period presumed to be cardiac cause.

13. N-Substituted Fluoro Benzothiazolo Schiff’s Bases: Synthesis and Characterisation of New Novel Anthelmintic Agents
D. Ravi Sankar Reddy, K. Harin Kumar
Various substituted N-[6-fluoro-7-substituted benzothiazol-2-yl]-2-(furan-2-yl methylene) hydrazine carbothioamide containing different functional groups have been synthesized by treating fluoro chloro aniline with KSCN in presence of bromine in glacial acetic acid and ammonia to get 2-amino-6-fluoro-7-chloro-(1,3)- benzothiazole, which was treated with hydrazine hydrate, carbondisulphide and sodium chloro acetate in the presence of ethanol to get N-(7-chloro-6-fluoro benzothiazol-2-yl) hydrazine carbothioamide, which will refluxed with furfuraldehyde in the presence of ethanol to get newly N-(6-fluoro-7-chloro benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-(furan-2-yl methylene) hydrazine carbothioamide or schiff’ base. To the above schiff’s base different substitutents in presence of Dimethyl formamide (DMF) were treated to get newly targeted compounds through replacing at 7th position of chlorine. The lead compounds were characterized by Melting point, TLC, calculated elemental analysis, UV, IR, and H1 NMR spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were treated for anthelmintic activity against Earthworms (perituma posthuma) nearly equal size had shown significant activity at different concentrations compared to standard; still further studies are requested.

14. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Screening Of 3-(1H-Benzo[D]Imidazol-2-Y1sulfanyl)Methyl-4-[Phenoxy(Phenyl)Acetamido]-5-Mercpto-1,2,4-Triazole and Related Aryloxy Compounds
Debojyoti Chakraborty, S.R.Sharma
A series of new 1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives of 3,4-substituted triazole. 3-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)methyl-4-[phenyloxy(phenylacetamido)]-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole and related aryloxy compounds were synthesised, analysed and characterised by FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. These compounds were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The antibacterial activities were compared against chlorophenicol and antifungal activity with mycostalin. Some triazole derivatives showed a little antibacterial but appreciable antifungal activity.

15. Carbon Nanotubes: An Impending Carter in Therapeutics.
Osmani R. M., Kulkarni A. S., Aloorkar N. H., Bhosale R. R., Ghodake P. P., Harkare B. R.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been under scientific investigation for more than fifteen years because of their unique properties that predestine them for many potential applications. The field of nanotechnology and nanoscience push their investigation forward to produce CNTs with suitable parameters for future applications. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1,000,000. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology and other branches of life science. Their unique surface area, stiffness, strength and resilience have led to much excitement in the field of pharmacy. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes and multiple-walled nanotubes. Techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition, silane solution and flame synthesis methods. The properties and characteristics of CNTs are still being researched heavily and scientists have barely begun to tap the potential of these structures. CNTs can pass through membranes, carrying therapeutic drugs, vaccines and nucleic acids deep into the cell to targets previously unreachable. Overall, recent studies regarding CNTs have shown a very promising glimpse of what lies ahead in the future of medicines.

16. Modification of Natural Killer cells to target tumors
Wisam Alsamah, Yasmin Romia
The background and the aim: NK cells cytolytic and cytokine production activities suggest them as a potential source for adoptive therapy. I engineered NK cells with chimeric receptors (CARs) specific for HER-2, a tumor-associated antigen frequently overexpressed by many tumors of epithelial origin, providing them with tumor-antigen targeting specificity. Material and Methods: NK cells have been genetically modified by using the following techniques: Isolation of human PBMCs, expansion of primary human NK cells, retroviral transduction. Results: I compared first and second generation CARs including a stimulatory (CD3ζ) signaling domain alone or together with a costimulatory (CD28) signaling domain. I found that costimulatory signaling markedly improved IL-2 production by NK cells. Conclusion: Thus, the direct coupling of the antibody specificity to the function of NK cells by CAR expression is uniquely able to enhance tumor cells targeting by NK cells.

17. Recent Developments in Colon Specific Drug Delivery Systems: Approaches Promising in Targeting Colon
Niranjan Goud Kotla, Ashwini Shivapooja, Yashwant
Colon drug delivery is intended to target the drug molecules to the local area of colon to treat various diseases such as crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and colon cancer etc. It is still considered as an idyllic site for the delivery of drugs by timed releasing system, coating with pH sensitive polymer, prodrug and colonic microflora activated delivery system. Amongst different types of delivery systems microflora activated delivery systems has appeared to be one of the most efficacious approaches in this direction, since the enormous bacteria population as well as associated enzymes trigger the drug release mechanism from the delivery system. In the midst of systems developed, most recently COLAL technology, CODESTM, MMXTM and PHLORALTM technologies are unique in terms of attaining the desired site in vivo, feasibility and design rationale of the system. The present review highlights the recent advancements made in drug delivery technologies for colon specific delivery systems to target the colon, in specific considering the transitory description of the delivery systems.

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