International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. Health Personnel Practices Regarding Hand Hygiene in the Delivery Room at the Middle Euphrates Teaching Hospitals
Wafa A K Abbas, Muntahaa Rashaan
Literatures proved that Hand hygiene is the most important and effective infection prevention and control measure to prevent the spread of microorganisms causing HAIs and improving hand hygiene is consider a vital intervention to promote optimum patient safety in delivery room. Aim of the study; This study conducted to assess hand hygiene practices of health care personnel in the delivery room at the middle Euphrates teaching hospitals. Methods; A Descriptive qusi-expremental research design begin in 20th February to 26th May 2016, Current study sample involve all midwives and physicians in the delivery room (Total coverage.). Questionnaire used for data collection by interview forms and observational checklist was obtain from the extensive review of relevant literature and related studies Data analyzed through utilize (SPSS) software version (16) where, included descriptive analysis and inferential data analysis. The study conducted among 37 physicians and 97 midwives working in the delivery room are females. The current study indicate that the overall evaluation for the health staff practices regarding hand hygiene is fair at Karbala, Al-Najaf, Babylon and Diwaniah with high difference in health staff practices regarding infection control precautions (hand hygiene) and the different studied governorates at p-value 0.001. based on the finding of present study majority of health care personnel have fair applies related to hand hygiene practices at different studied governorate hospitals. Updating practice of health care personnel through continuing in-service educational programs. Regular inspection and follow-up from the ministry of health for assurances good hand hygiene, the important of exist motivation system and punishment system to the neglected health care personnel.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8531

2. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Apoptotic Marker PDCD4 in Malignant and Benign Breast Tissues
Mie Afify, Nervana Samy, Mohamed D E Abdel Maksoud, Marwa A Elshaer, Mohamed Shalaan
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in Egypt, early diagnosis and treatment save the life of many patients. In this study we aimed to investigate the PDCD4 expression in breast cancer and its role in disease progression. Fifty breast tissue samples were collected from patients who underwent surgical resection; 25 invasive breast carcinoma and 25 benign noncancerous lesions (20 fibroadenomas, 5 fibrocystic diseases). Immunohistochemical analysis for PDCD4 in tissue samples was done with the anti-PDCD4 antibody. The immunohistochemical evaluation showed moderate and strong positive staining in breast cancer patients with grade II invasive duct carcinoma while invasive duct carcinoma grade III and IV patients showed strong positive staining. Patients with fibrocystic disease showed equal staining levels or mild staining. In conclusion; our results showed that PDCD4 could be used as diagnostic and prognostic marker for this disease.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8532

3. Comparative Study on Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Gmelina arborea Roxb. From four Different Geographical Regions
Iswarya S, Sridevi M, Mayavel A
In the present study, leaf, bark, twig and root samples of Gmelina arborea (Family: Verbenaceae) are taken from four different geographical regions in and around Tamil Nadu. The samples were subjected to Soxhlet extraction with Methanol (MeOH) and n-Hexane. They were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and their respective concentrations were estimated and compared. Antioxidant activities of the selected samples were tested using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Assay and Metal Chelation Assay. When compared to n-Hexane, All the samples of Methanol extract showed good concentrations of secondary metabolites, especially high phenol content (8.4- 4.4 mg/ml of MeOH extract). There were significant amounts of Alkaloids (2.6-0.1 mg/ml), Tannins (3- 0.1 mg/ml) and Saponins (8.2-0.2 mg/ml) though their concentration ranges were highly varying from sample to sample. The radical scavenging activity was stable and significant in all the samples from Area-3 and 4 with B3M the highest (71.51%). On a comparative scale, G.arborea samples from Area-3 and 4 (Farmers’ plantations) showed a good amount of phytochemicals and antioxidant potential thus forming a good line of trees for selection and breeding.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8533

4. Regulatory Assessment of Premarket Approval of Medical Devices in US and EU
M.P Venkatesh*, Divya Teja Bandla
The demand for medical devices globally has raised the attention of government regulatory bodies to ensure the safety and effectiveness of these products. Developed markets, such as the United States and European Union, have set up well-established regulatory systems for medical devices, which have consistently been amended to accommodate the changing requirements of safety and the trend of globalization. The way in which devices are regulated in the European Union is very different from that of United States, especially in terms of the clinical data required for premarket approval. This has introduced significant differences in time-to-market approval for both United States and European Union, particularly in the case of high-risk Class III and Class IIb implantable devices. Systems for approving new medical devices must provide pathways to market important innovations besides ensuring that patients are adequately protected. To achieve these goals, the United States and the European Union use a combination of premarket testing and postmarket vigilance but with some marked contrasts in their approaches. Features of both environments require reform, as well as continuing research to assess policy changes which will benefit device manufacturers to develop devices which can be marketed both in US and EU simultaneously.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8534

5. In silico analysis of Nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis sp natto
Cambyz Irajie, Milad Mohkam, Navid Nezafat, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Younes Ghasemi
Nattokinase or subtilisin NAT (EC is one of the most remarkable enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis sp. Natto, which posses direct fibrinolytic activity. The aim of this study is in silico analysis of Nattokinase structure and function. The three-dimensional structure of serine protease Nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis sp. natto was determined using homology modeling performed by Geno3D2 Web Server and refined by ModRefiner. The obtained models were validated via programs such as RAMPAGE, ERRAT, 3D Match and verify 3D for consistency; moreover, functional analysis performed by PFP from Kihara Bioin­formatics laboratory. RAMPAGE analysis showed that 96.7% of the residues are located in the favored region, 3.0% in allowed region and 0.4% in outlier region of the Ramachandran plot. The verify 3D value of 0.73 indicates that the environmental sketch of the model is fine. SOPMA and PSIPRED were exploited for computation of the secondary structural properties of serine protease Nattokinase. Active site determination via AADS suggested that this enzyme can be applied as a potent enzyme for cardiovascular therapy. However, these results should be more confirmed by wet lab researches for designing the more active enzyme for better functions on its fibrinolysis activity.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8535

6. Antioxidant Potential and Total Phenolic Compounds of Extracts and Fractions of Pistasia atlantica
Somayeh Alidadi, Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Majid Asadi-Samani, Zahra Lorigooini
Different parts of Pistasia atlantica have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes in Iran. The aim of this study was to measurement and compare antioxidant activity and polyphenolic compounds of crude ethyl alcohol extract and four fractions of P. atlantica leaf. Crude ethyl alcohol extract of P. atlantica leaf was prepared using maceration method and subjected to fractionation with different polarity. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions was evaluated by the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity method. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavonol components were measured with Folin-Ciocaltiue and Chlorid Aluminum methods. According to the radical scavenging capacity, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value 1.54±0.12 µg/ml, followed by the chloroform fraction with higher percent inhibition of the DPPH with 3.4±0.11 µg/ml. The results are represented relative to a reference standard, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), with IC50 value of 33.5±3.67μg/ml. Among these fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction and chloroform fraction had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds with value of 532.73 and 355.14 mg GAE/g, respectively. The results of this study showed that some fractions of P. atlantica leaf extract could be used as easily accessible source of natural antioxidants.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8536

7. Comparison of  Antioxidant Activity in the Methanolic Peels Extracts of Solanum lycopersocum and Solanum lycopersocum Var. Cerasiforme
Ravindran Muthukumarasamy, Nur Asyiqin Amran, Alifah Ilyana, Sengamalam Radhakrishnan
Oxidative stress is one of the vital factors which causes serious illness to humans. The reactive oxygen species also accelerates the aging process and antioxidants are crucial in daily diet as it will help to protect body from free radicals and their threats.  The current  study focuses on the comparison of  antioxidant activity in the methanolic peels extract between two tomato species namely Solanum lycopersocum and Solanum lycopersocum var. Cerasiforme (cherry tomato). Tomatoes have abundant antioxidant properties and was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts (by maceration method of extraction) of both peels showed high radical scavenging properties, however peels of Solanum lycopersocum var. cerasiforme proved to have higher antioxidant properties. The IC50 result revealed that methanolic peels extract of Solanum lycopersocum var. cerasiforme was found to be 619.14 µg/ml compared to Solanum lycopersocum with 697.16 µg/ml. Thus, the present study reveals that the peels of tomatoes exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their medicinal and nutritional functions.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8537

8. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Pyrazoline Derivatives
Mahesh G Kharatmol, Deepali M Jagdale
Pyrazoline class of compounds serve as better moieties for an array of treatments, they have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, diuretic, cardiovascular activities. Apart from these they also have anticancer activities. So, pertaining to its importance, many attempts are made to synthesize pyrazolines. Since conventional methods of organic synthesis are energy and time consuming. There are elaborate pathways for green and eco-friendly synthesis of pyrazoline derivatives including microwave irradiation, ultrasonic irradiation, grinding and use of ionic liquids which assures the synthesis of the same within much lesser time and by use of minimal energy.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8538

9. Evaluation of the Efficacy of ST2 and NT-proBNP in the Diagnosis and Prediction of Short- Term Prognosis in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction
Shivananda B Nayak, Dharindra Sawh, Brandon Scott, Vestra Sears, Kareshma Seebalack, Marika Seenath, Paige Seepaulsingh, Ssati  Seepersad, Vishan Seetahal, Koomatie Ramsaroop
Purpose: i) To determine the relationship between the cardiac biomarkers ST2 and NT-proBNP with ejection fraction (EF) in heart failure (HF) patients.  ii) Assess whether a superiority existed between the aforementioned cardiac markers in diagnosing the HF with reduced EF. iii) Determine the efficacy of both biomarkers in predicting a 30-day cardiovascular event and rehospitalization in patients with HF with reduced EF iv) To assess the influence of age, gender, BMI, anaemia and renal failure on the ST2 and NT-proBNP levels. Design and Methods: A prospective double-blind study was conducted to obtain data from a sample of 64 cardiology patients. A blood sample was collected to test for ST2 and NT-proBNP. An echocardiogram (to obtain EF value), electrocardiogram and questionnaire were also obtained. Results: Of the 64 patients enrolled, 59.4% of the population had an EF less than 40%. At the end of the 30- day period, 7 patients were warded, 37 were not warded, one died and 17 were non respondent. Both biomarkers were efficacious at diagnosing HF with a reduced EF. However, neither of them were efficacious in predicting 30-day rehospitalization. The mean NT-proBNP values being: not rehospitalized (2114.7486) and 30 day rehospitalization (1008.42860) and the mean ST2 values being:  not rehospitalized (336.1975), and 30-day rehospitalization. (281.9657). Conclusion: Neither ST2 or NT-proBNP was efficacious in predicting the short- term prognosis in HF with reduced EF. Both however were successful at confirming the diagnosis of HF in HF patients with reduced EF.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8539

10. Biochemical Profiles of Various Fresh Extracts of Gnaphalium polycaulon Pers.
Shanmugapriya K*, T Senthil Murugan and Thayumanavan Tha
Medicinal plants plays a significant role in the pharmaceutical industry.  In present scenario, the need is to explore, identify and utilize this new medicinal plant on one hand and, on the other, to help conserve the existing but threatened species of rare medicinal plant.This present research work was carry out for the first time in South India to analyse and estimate the biochemical profiles of various extracts of fresh parts of Gnaphalium polycaulon pers., plant. The biochemical composition such as total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, total phenols, cholesterol, total chlorophylls and reducing sugar, sterols were estimated using the standard procedure in fresh plant material.The biochemical analysis of Gnaphalium polycaulon plant showed the presence of various phytochemicals. The results of the present study supplement the usage of the studied plant which possesses several bioactive compounds and used as food and also as medicine.The results of present studies demonstrated that Gnaphalium polycaulon plant could be a sourceof valuable information and a guideline for the scientists, researchers in India and also all over the world.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8540

11. Analysis of ACTH Levels After High Dose and Long-Term Prednisone Therapy in Children with Steroid Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome
Hapsari R N, Asmaningsih N, Padolo E, Yulistiani
Background The use of high dose and long-term prednisone as glucocorticoid in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome patients can cause the suppressive effect on endogenous steroid production, namely HPA axis suppression which is characterized by the decrease of ACTH levels. This can decrease cortisol levels so can affect metabolism process, immune response, and brain function. Objective To analyze ACTH levels in the induction and alternating phase, and to relate with the patient’s condition both clinical and laboratory data. Methods ACTH levels were measured before and after induction phase and four weeks after alternating phase at 08.00-09.30 a.m. Results 15 patients consisted of 9 boys and 6 girls showed there were no significant differences between ACTH levels in each phase. ACTH levels were increased 23.6% from 22.2 ± 13.1 pg/mL to 27.4 ± 23.0 pg/mL during the induction phase (p>0.05) and alternating phase also showed that ACTH levels were increased 1.7% from 27.4 ± 23.0 pg/mL to 27.9 ± 22.2 pg/mL (p>0.05). The clinical manifestation of HPA axis suppression such as hypoglycemia, hypotension, weight loss, appetite loss, and acute dehydration were not found in the patients. Weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain were found only 7% after the induction phase. Conclusion HPA axis suppression did not occur after the high dose and long-term prednisone therapy in the induction and alternating phase which showed ACTH levels average in normal range. It was also supported by the absence of clinical and laboratory data that showed signs of HPA axis suppression.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8541

12. Impact of Intercropping System on Yield and Quality of Lolium Multiflorum and Trigonella foenum-graecuml
S A Mahfouz, M A Mohamed, Amira K G Atteya, M E Ibrahim
Due to the ever increasing pressure on cultivated land the importance of intercropping in farming practices has been recognized. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of intercropping ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam) with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). For this purpose, a field experiment was arranged based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental farm of faculty of agriculture Cairo University at Giza, Egypt during two seasons of 2015 and 2016. The experimental treatments were planting patterns (sole crop of rye or fenugreek and intercropping ratios of 1 rye: 1 fenugreek, 2 rye: 1 fenugreek and 1 rye: 2 fenugreek). Results showed that intercropping system had positive effects on ryegrass yield. Moreover, the planting ratio of 2 rye: 1 fenugreek gave the maximum values of ryegrass fresh and dry yield in both cuts compared with the other treatments of the sole crop and the other intercropping ratios in the first and second season, respectively. The application of sole crop had the highest fenugreek fresh and dry yield and seed yield too in both seasons compared with other treatments, respectively. While, the maximum significant levels of chemical contents (oil and protein percentage) of fenugreek seeds were found with the sole fenugreek crop and the intercropping ratio of 1 rye: 2fenugreek, respectively as compared with the other treatments but the differences between the fenugreek sole crop and the other studied intercropping system in the percentage of trigoniline were insignificant in both seasons, respectively. The maximum significant values of competitive ratio (CR) and aggresivity (A) for rye grass crop was found in the pattern ratio of 1rye: 2 fenugreek in both seasons, respectively. While the same situation was recorded with fenugreek crop in the pattern ratio of 2 rye: 1 fenugreek in both seasons, respectively. The highest total land equivalent ratio (LER) (3.08 and 2.98 for the first and second seasons, respectively) was obtained by sowing the crops in the intercrop ratio of 2 rye: 1 fenugreek and the lowest total LER (2.57and 2.48 in both seasons, respectively) was obtained by using the intercrop ratio of 1 rye: 1 fenugreek. In addition, all intercropping treatments in both seasons, respectively gave values of LER for rye grass or fenugreek or both of them more than one.  These findings suggest that intercropping of fenugreek and ryegrass increased the total productivity per unit area.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8542

13. Phycocyanin Decrease Trophoblast Il-17 Expression in Preeclamptic Rat Models
Gondo H K, Kusworini H, Arsana W, Sardjono T W
Preeclampsia/eclampsia (PEE) was the main cause of death in pregnancy. However, until now, this disease has no adequate medical prevention for lack of its basic molecular pathomechanism. In recent years, there are growing number of study has concern trophoblast apoptosis as important trigger. Thropoblast apoptosis has been shown in many report lead to trophoblast failure to invade into endometrial tissue. Invasion failure of trophoblast  was characterized with high expression of IL-17 in its tissue.  Spirulina arthrospira plant or also called blue-green algae has been consumed since by the Aztec tribe. Several studies have proven that this plant have the immunomodulation properties stimulate various immune functions such as production of cytokines, chemokines and other anti-inflammatory mediators. Its active bioactive Phycocyanin (PC) has been shown have an effect as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Previous study has been shown that this substance has beneficial effect in preeclampsia inhibition in rat models  via its inflammatory reducing effect However, there are lack of information concerning its role in trophoblast IL-17. Hence, this study is conduct to reveal its role in IL-17 expression in trophoblast in preeclampsia. Methods. This research used animal models with PE/E pregnant rat. PE/E induced by IL-6 intravein  at dose 5 ng/100 g/day body weight. Animals divided in 6 groups of treatment with two groups control and four groups of PC treatment in different dose. After decapitated, uterus  tissue processed to view its IL-17 expression using immunofluoresnce  Result. This study has proven IL-17 reducing effect of PC in preeclampsia model of pregnant rats induced by IL -6. PC has reducing IL-17 expression significantly  in  trophoblast tissue of pregnant rats models induced by IL-6 at dose  of 40 ng/100 kg weight. Conclusion. This study confirm that PC has a protective effect on pregnant rats preeclampsia through its inhibiton of trophoblast IL-17.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8543

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