International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. Toll-Like Receptors as a Potential Marker of Aggressive Periodontitis in Indonesian Population
Chiquita Prahasanti, Aulanni’am Aulanni’am
Toll-like receptors play a role as a bridge between innate immune system and adaptive immune system, playing an important role in body’s defense against invading germs. Thus, the introduction of TLR-4 can be used as a marker for aggressive and chronic periodontitis. This research aimed to analyze the expression of TLR-4 in patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis. The samples in this study were derived from tissue suffering from aggressive and chronic periodontitis. The number of samples in this research was 40 patients with aggressive periodontitis and 40 patients with chronic periodontitis. Then, TLR-4 expression test was conducted by using immunohistochemistry. Based on the results of T-test, a statistical test, it is known that t value was 5.697 with significant value about 0.000 (α = 5%). It is also known that there was significant difference of TLR4 protein expression between in patients with aggressive periodontitis and in those with chronic periodontitis. Morever, based on a box plot diagram, it is known that there was significant difference of TLR4 protein distribution between in patients with aggressive periodontitis and in those with chronic periodontitis. Besides, it is also known that TLR4 protein expression has an effect on the incidence of patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis, as well as the shape of the regression equation. Furthermore, it is known that OR estimated value for the variable expression of TLR4 protein was 1.275 (sign = 0.000). It indicates that if TLR4 protein expression increased 1 (one) unit, then the risk of aggressive periodontitis could be 1,275 times. Conclusion: The increasing of TLR4 protein expression in patients with aggressive periodontitis indicates that cytokine becomes an indicator of inflammation in aggressive periodontitis.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8289

2. Effects of D-Glucose Exposure on Motor Activity by Swimming Distance During Early Development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Kartika Rahma, Mitsuyo Kishida, Sasangka Prasetyawan, Aulanni’am Aulanni’am
Several studies have been reported behavioral changes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) recently. The increasing levels of glucose affects neuronal activity and may inhibit the process of differentiation and regeneration of neurons in the brain. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons produce dopamine as a neurotransmitter which has an important role to regulate motor functions in the brain. This study aimed to determine the effect of exposure to high concentrations of glucose on the activity of dopaminergic neurons on early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to glucose (1%, 3% and 5%) as a diabetic animal model at the beginning of development. Co-incubation was performed by incubated both of glucose and L-DOPA. Swimming distance of zebrafish larvae was measured as a parameter to determine the motor function regulated by dopamine activity. Results of statistical analysis in zebrafish embryos exposed to 1% and 3% glucose showed significant differences (p <0.05) reduction on swimming distance. Co-incubation glucose with L-DOPA partially increased the swimming distance. It can be concluded that the administration of excessive exposure to glucose was able to decrease the activity of dopaminergic neurons by decreasing the distance of swim in early zebrafish development.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8290

3. Assessment of Physiological Health Status in Relations to Different Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Measures of Head-Supported Load Carrying Male Porters of Sikkim, India
Mahuya Patra Purkait, Koushik Bhattacharya
Background: Carrying heavy loads in the hilly region, porters face extreme ranges in terrain condition, sloped path that is very steep and lack of oxygen due to altitude. The porters in Sikkim, India, routinely carry head-supported loads, which often exceed their body weight, over long distances up and down the steep mountain footpaths which prompted us to assess occupational health status of these head supported load carrying porters. Objective: We aimed our study to evaluate physical and physiological status of male porters of Gangtok, Sikkim. Methods: Seventeen male porters and twenty one healthy as well as age matched (Age: 37 – 52 years) control subjects were selected for the study. Different physical, anthropometric and physiological parameters were studied. Students “t” test was performed to find out the significant difference (P<0.05), if any, between the selected variables. Results: Results of this study on male porters suggest that they are physically healthy but having spinal shrinkage along with lower hand grip strength and PEFR. Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis that the male porters are associated with decreased lung function and increased spinal shrinkage. To develop an effective intervention strategy, the treatment seeking behavior of individuals would also need to be improved through awareness program.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8291

4. Neuroprotection of 17β-Estradiol Against D-Glucose Exposure Effect on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression and Apoptotic Cells in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain During Early Development
Kartika Rahma, Mitsuyo Kishida, Sasangka Prasetyawan, Aulanni’am Aulanni’am
Impaired glucose balance affects the regeneration of neurotransmitters in the brain. One of neurotransmitters that is known to have an important role in the brain is dopamine. Dopamine production by dopaminergic (DA) neurons is regulated by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Previous research has been reported that a decline on TH expression in DA neurons was a result of exposure to excess glucose. One contributing factor is an excess amount of glucose, which interfere homeostasis in the body by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) more and cause oxidative stress. This condition can cause damage to cells in the brain, including DA neurons, to cell death occurs (apoptosis). The characteristic of neuroprotective owned by the hormone estrogen allegedly able to protect nerve cells from the damaging effects of this. The aim of this study is to explore the involvement of 17β-Estradiol as neuroprotection on the effects of glucose exposure during early development on dopaminergic neurons. This study used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as animal model. They were divided into 4 groups: negative control group, hyperglycemia group, group that was co-incubated glucose and estrogen, and the group that only incubated with estrogen alone. Cell death (apoptosis) in the brain was observed using acridine orange staining and TH expression was observed using immunocytochemistry. The results showed that the embryos were exposed to 5% glucose significantly (p <0.05) increased the number of apoptotic cells and decreased the expression of TH. While the results of the analysis of embryos in co-incubation group with estrogen showed improvement with decreased apoptotic cells and the increasing expression of TH up to the normal amount. It can be concluded that estrogen shown to have neuroprotective effect in protecting the decreasing TH expression, as the effects of glucose exposure, which could potentially lead to diabetes, by acting as an antioxidant through cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8292

5. Effectiveness of Cardiac Walking on Blood Pressure Among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
T Vidhya, C Kanniammal, Jaideep Mahendra, G Valli
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of the mortality in urban and rural India and foremost causes of the death worldwide. Hypertension is a major risk condition that plays a pivotal role regarding the complications for those diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome. According to the World Health Organization (2012), hypertension is the number one cause of mortality in the world and it is a major risk factor for cardiac diseases and stroke. Objectives: i) To identify the level of blood pressure (BP) in pre and post test among study and control group of patients with acute coronary syndrome. ii) Determine the effect of cardiac walking on blood pressure among patients with ACS. iii) Associate the selected back ground variables with the level of systolic BP in the post test among study and control group. Methods: A quasi experimental design was adopted for this study. There are 50 Patients diagnosed with ASC admitted for the treatment and attending cardiac OPD were selected by purposive sampling technique of non- probability type. The intervention cardiac walking given for a period of one month to the study group. Findings: The comparison of before and after systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) within study group depicted statistically significant difference at **p<0.001 but not in control group. The comparison of post systolic and diastolic BP between study and control group inferred that there was statistically significant difference at **p<0.001. Conclusion: Cardiac walking is most effective way to stabilize the blood pressure among patients with ACS in order to prevent further complications such as stroke.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8293

6. Drug Development of Mefenamic Acid Derivatives as Analgesic by Molecular Approach
Puspaningtyas A R
A new compound of Mefenamic Acid derivate, 4-nitrobenzoyl-mefenamic acid has been synthesized by benzoylation reaction between mefenamic acid and 4-nitrobenzoyl chloride after prediction by in silico study/molecular approach.  A derivative of mefenamic acid (4-NO2-benzoyl-mefenamic acid) has been synthesized for increase its activity as candidate of analgesic drug/inhibitor COX-2 (Cyclooxigenase-2). This compound has been purified by Column Chromatography and analyzed using TLC-Densitometry to determine purity with Rf value 0,8. The spot has good purity and then it was identified this structure using H-NMR 400 MHz and FTIR-KBr. The result showed that this compound is 4-nitrobenzoyl-mefenamic acid (4NBMA).  4NBMA gives white yellow color with melting point 198-199oC. Finally, 4NBMA was tested analgetic activity by hot plate method and it showed that 4-nitrobenzoyl-mefenamic acid has been higher activity than mefenamic acid.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8294

7. Antihypertension Effect from Bakasang’s Peptide Extract Based on MDA Levels in Sera and iNOS Expression in Cardiac Tissue of Rats Hypertensive Model
Hilman Nurmahdi, Sasangka Prasetyawan, Max Robinson Wenno, Aulanni’am Aulann’am
Hypertension is an abnormality of cardiovascular condition, marked by high-blood pressure over normal condition. One of the factors that causes hypertension is altered equilibrium of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteron system, which commonly caused by genetic disorder, could produces excess of Angiotensin II which known as vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II elevates body’s blood pressure and stimulates production of free radicals causes hypertension and oxidative stress. This research conducted to explore potential antihypertension effect from bakasang’s peptide extract made from fermented skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis L.) based on MDA levels in sera and iNOS expression in cardiac tissue from hypertension rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced by DOCA-salt. Rats were divided into five groups, they were: (1) negative control group, (2) hypertensive control group, (3) hypertension with captopril therapy with dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight (BW), (4,5) bakasang’s peptide extract therapy with dose of 200 mg/kgBW, and 300 mg/kgBW respectively. The results showed that bakasang’s peptide extract with dose of 200 mg/kgBW significantly decrease (p<0.05) MDA level in sera and iNOS expression in cardiac tissue. MDA level decreased up to 32.77%, and iNOS level of expression decreased up to 34.46 % after therapy using bakasang’s peptide extract on hypertension rats. It can be concluded that bakasang’s peptide extract has antihypertension effect (ACE-inhibitor), and capable to decrease MDA levels in sera and iNOS expression in cardiac tissue on hypertension rats induced by DOCA-salt.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8295

8. Effectiveness of Propolis Aqueous Extract on Chemical Constituents of Calendula Plants
Abou-Sreea A I,  Mahfouz S A, Zewainy R M
This study was performed in order to investigate how the foliar spray of propolis aqueous extract can influence the vegetative growth and flowering characters, chemical constituents and oil composition of Calendula plants. The aqueous extract was applied at four levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 gL-1). It was revealed that propolis was of a positive effect upon all studied parameters; there was an increase done due to the application of the aqueous extract of propolis. The highest results were obtained due to the application of 5, 10 and 15 g L-1 from the aqueous extract of propolis compared to 20 g L-1 and the control plants. 5 and 10 g L-1 gave the highest records of vegetative characters. While, 15 g L-1 had the highest records of all flowering attributes. In chemical composition optimum results ranged between 10 and 15 gL-1. The highest percentage of the most important components of the essential oil; sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (cadinene, α-Muurolene and Muurolene) and sesquiter phenols (α- cadinol, α-Cadinol (Epi) and α-Muurolol (Epi)) resulted from 15 g L-1. Hence, it could be suggested that propolise aqueous extract could be sprayed on calendula plants at a rate not exceeding 15 g L-1 to get higher results.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8296

9. Skin Penetration of Coenzyme Q10 in Nanostructure Lipid Carriers Using Olive Oil and Cetyl Palmitate
Fenita Shoviantari, Tristiana Erawati, Widji Soeratri
Penetration is an absolute requirement for active ingredient to produce an effect in deep of the skin. First obstacle for active ingredient to penetrate through the skin is stratum corneum. Nanotechnology that has nano size particles, is the answer to make it’s penetrate through the skin. In this research the skin penetration of Coenzyme Q10 was loaded in the lipid nanoparticles that is nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) was compered with it was dissolved in olive oil. The research result known that Coenzyme Q10 was loaded in NLC has deeper penetration (639.34 ± 17.69 µm) in the mice skin than it was dissolved in olive oil as control (33.00 ± 1.71 µm), its just least penetrated into the skin after 6 hours sample application.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8297

10. Cytotoxic Effect of the Combination of Gemcitabine and Atorvastatin Loaded in Microemulsion on the HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells
Mayson H Alkhatib, Dalal A Al-Saedi, Wadiah S Backer
The combination of anticancer drugs in nanoparticles has great potential as a promising strategy to maximize efficacies by eradicating resistant, reduce the dosage of the drug and minimize toxicities on the normal cells. Gemcitabine (GEM), a nucleoside analogue, and atorvastatin (ATV), a cholesterol lowering agent, have shown anticancer effect with some limitations. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of the combination therapy of GEM and ATVencapsulated in a microemulsion (ME) formulation in the HCT116 colon cancer cells. The cytotoxicity and efficacy of the formulation were assessed by the 3- (4,5dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphyneltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mechanism of cell death was examined by observing the morphological changes of treated cells under light microscope, identifying apoptosis by using the ApopNexin apoptosis detection kit, and viewing the morphological changes in the chromatin structure stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) under the inverted fluorescence microscope. It has been found that reducing the concentration of GEM loaded on ME (GEM-ME) from 5μM to 1.67μM by combining it with 3.33μM of ATV in a ME formulation (GEM/2ATV-ME) has preserved the strong cytotoxicity of GEM-ME against HCT116 cells. The current study proved that formulating GEM with ATV in ME has improved the therapeutic potential of GEM and ATV as anticancer drugs.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8298

11. The Potential of Moringa oleifera to Induce Cerebral Leptin mRNA Expression and to Attenuate Oxidative Stress, Cognitive and Motor Deficits, Depression- and Anxiety- Like Behavior in Experimental Obese Model
Asmaa Ahmed Mahmoud, Fateheya Mohamed Metwally, Hend Mohamed Rashad, Hanaa Hamdy Ahmed, Asmaa M Elfiky, Aboelfetoh Mohamed Abdalla
Moringa oleifera showed an evident role against obesity and leptin resistance. However, Moringa oleifera potential effects on alteration of moods, cognitive as well as motor deficits in obese animal model have not been evaluated in a mechanistic way. So, the aim of the current study is to examine the potential of Moringa oleifera to induce cerebral leptin mRNA expression, and consequently its effects on amelioration of behavioral and biochemical alterations in obese female rats.  Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera was orally administered (600 mg/kg b.wt) for 12 weeks to those obese rats. Memory behavior, depression- and anxiety-like behavior, as well as motor activity were examined by object recognition test, forced swim test, light and dark test, and open field test, respectively. Leptin mRNA gene expression and its concentration were determined in cerebral cortex using quantitative real time-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde and glutathione were also evaluated in the cerebral cortex. Moringa oleifera significantly up-regulated cerebral leptin mRNA expression and its level, as well compared to control obese rats. Moreover, Moringa oleifera decreased lipid peroxidation significantly, whereas they improved glutathione significantly in comparison with those untreated rats. Regarding behavioral deficits, Moringa oleifera attenuated the declined memory, depression and anxiety- like behavior, as well as the motor deficit that observed in obese untreated rats. This study indicated the potential of Moringa oleifera in triggering cerebral leptin mRNA expression, hence protection of brain from oxidative damage as well as improvement of cognition, moods and motor deficits in obese rats.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8299

12. Penetration of Ubiquinone (Q10) Nanoemulsion Using Olive Oil Through Rat Skin
Deapsari F, Erawati T M, Soeratri W
Ubiquinon (Q10) is an endogenous antioxidant. It is lipophilic and practically insoluble in water. To improve its solubility and penetration, it was formulated into O/W nanoemulsion. The resulting Q10 nanoemulsion was then physically characterized for its droplet size, morphology, and viscosity. In addition, it was conducted a penetration test of Q10 in nanoemulsion delivery system compared to Q10 in emulsion using male Wistar rats. From the characterization results, it was found that the droplet size of Q10 nanoemulsion (70.07 ± 12.42 nm) < Q10 emulsion (21.063 ± 3,57μm), the morphology of droplet Q10 nanoemulsion and Q10 emulsion that are spherical, and that the viscosity of Q10 nanoemulsion (10.5 CPa.s) < Q10 emulsion (16 CPa.s). The penetration rate of Q10 in nanoemulsion and emulsion was observed at 2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours after treatment. The result was known that the penetration rate of Q10 in nanoemulsion (174.49 μm/h) > Q10 in emulsion (20.429 μm/h).
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8300

13. Reflections on Quality Clinical Teaching and Evaluation Through the Input of Nursing Students at the University of Babylon in Iraq
Muna Abdulwahab Khaleel, Amean A Al-Yaseri
The researchers had conducted this descriptive study aimed at given the nursing students at university of Babylon chance to reflect on their opinions of clinical teaching and evaluation. The study consisted of (136) third and fourth year nursing students from college of nursing/University of Babylon. Data were gathered by using questionnaire form which consisted of four items (21 statements). All items were rated on 3 Point Likert Scale whereas (Always, Sometimes and Never). Data analysis was done through the application of simple descriptive statistical methods such as frequencies and percentages to assess the results of the study. The results of the study indicated that some of the teaching skills of the clinical teacher components are at accepted levels, other like quality of bedside teaching (integrating theory to practice) needs more efforts on the part of the teacher. Also, results showed the responses for the statement clinical teacher provided chances to practice skills (37%) and responses to statement encouraged students to actively participate in the discussions (37%) needs to be looked into future. As well as results showed that the opportunities for practicing nursing skills, (46%) seems to show that less than half of the students are able to achieve these opportunities. The study concluded that the learning environment created by the teacher and his/her characteristics can and does have a profound effect on learning and the challenge for nurse education is to provide learning experience that facilitates the so called knowledge doer. Finally, the study recommended the necessity for improving the quality of the theoretical knowledge and bedside teaching in the clinical area and emphasized on provision for more chances to practice skills.
doi: 10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8301

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