1. Lipoproteins in Diabetic Maculopathy Vasantha M, Gnaneswaran. S, Vinodhini V.M
Diabetic maculopathy, defined as retinopathy within one disc diameter of the centre of the macula, is a major cause of vision loss in diabetes. Cross-sectional studies suggest that higher serum lipid levels are found in patient in patients with macular exudates and prospective studies have shown an increased risk of exudative maculopathy if baseline cholesterol is higher. Therefore in this study we have analysed the status of lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a) in a group of subject with Diabetic maculopathy. This study was carried out on patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus attending the Ophthalmology outpatient department of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre in Kattankulathur. 30 diabetic patients with diabetic maculopathy formed the study group. 30 diabetic patients without diabetic maculopathy formed the control group. The mean levels of Lp (a), Total cholesterol and LDL-C in the diabetic maculopathy group showed a statistically significant elevation compared to the control group. The statistically significant difference was also observed in the levels of HDL-C between the two groups. The mean levels of triglycerides did not differ significantly between the two groups. Lipoprotein in the circulation may have an indirect, yet important, role in the development of diabetic retinal complications due to Blood Retinal Barrier (BRB) impairment and lipoprotein extravasation.
2. Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy on Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Abirami.P, A.Judie
Purpose:To evaluate the effectiveness of Yoga on maternal and fetal outcome in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus at Government hospital, Tambaram, Chennai, Tamilnadu, South India. Methods: The intervention package for Yoga group consists of Yogic sukshma vyayama (20 -25 mts), Nadishodana pranayama(5-10 mts) and Dhyanam(5 mts) with hospital routine treatment from 24th week to till delivery where as control group received only routine hospital treatment. Self-designed tool to examine the maternal and fetal outcome variables were used. Independent t test was used to obtain P Value. P value of <0.05 were considered to indicate significant statistical difference. Result: Statistically significant difference found between maternal,fetal and neonatal outcome of mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus between yoga group and control group at p≤0.001.Conclusion: Antenatal mother with Gestational diabetes mellitus should use yoga as an adjunct therapy to prevent or reduce the complications and to improve the maternal and fetal outcome of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
3. Effect of Ethanolic Pod Extract of Canavalia gladiata on Peptic Ulcer in Wistar Rats Spandana Uppuluri, K.Dilip Raja, D.Sivaleela, A.Suresh Reddy, G. Siva Nageswara Rao
Peptic ulcer is an important and prevailing problem in many developing countries. Many drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer. But on chronic administration of these drugs causes various adverse effects. Therefore, herbal medicines seems to be an alternative due to their fewer adverse effects. Canavalia gladiata commonly called as sword bean belongs to the family fabaceae. Since it has got lot of significance in traditional medicine, the main aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of Canavalia gladiata in wistar rats. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to the OECD guideline, one dose i.e. 250 mg/kg was selected for study. In aspirin induced ulcer model, ulcer index and percentage inhibition were determined. Ranitidine at 20 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Pretreatment of ethanolic extract of Canavalia gladiate pods showed significant (P<0.001) decrease in number of ulcers ulcer score index and increase in the percentage protection in aspirin- induced ulceration models. The ethanolic extract of Canavalia gladiate pods possesses significant antiulcer properties. In conclusion the antiulcer properties of the extract may be attributed to the presence of alkaloids and phenolic compounds present in the plant extract with various biological activities.
Cells from virtually all organisms respond to a variety of stresses by the rapid synthesis of a highly conserved set of polypeptides termed heat shock proteins (HSPs). The precise functions of HSPs are unknown, but there is considerable evidence that these stress proteins are essential for survival at both normal and elevated temperatures. HSPs also appear to play a critical role in the development of thermotolerance and protection from cellular damage associated with stresses such as ischemia, cytokines, and energy depletion. These observations suggest that HSPs play an important role in both normal cellular homeostasis and the stress response. There is a widespread interest in the cellular mechanisms utilized by an organism to cope with a disruption in homeostasis. Current research is focused at severallevels, ranging from basic molecular biology approaches to therapeutic applications. One reason forthis interest, and the complexity associated with thetopic, is evidence demonstrating that mammalian species have developed many different ways to deal with stress The intent of this mini-review is to summarize what is known about the various physiological factors that modulate HSP responses to stressors at cellular and systemic levels as well as to highlight studies suggesting that HSPs play a critical role in the development of thermotolerance and protection from stress-induced cellular damage.
5. Evaluation of the Potential Beneficial Effects of Thymoquinone Against Nicotine Induced Toxicity Ziyad M Aljohani, Ahmad A Alharbi, Mohammad F Alsaedi, Ahmad F Alahmadi, Osama A Alahmadi, Alaa A Alharbi , Hany M. Abo-Haded
Thymoquinone (TQ) is a compound derived from the black seeds of a flower called Nigella Sativa.This plant has been used as a medicinal herb to fight diseases and boost immunity.Science has proven that thymoquinone has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancerous properties.This research attempts to investigate the protective effect of thymoquinone against organ damage induced by nicotine in rats.
6. Assessment of Gingival Thickness with Regard to Age, Gender and Location in the Dental Arch– A Clinical Study Aishwarya .J, Radhika Arjunkumar
Aim – Assessment of gingival thickness with regard to age, gender and its location in the dental arch Objective– To assess the variance in the gingival thickness in patients who are reporting to the dental clinic in relation to their age, gender and dental arch location Background -The measurement of the gingival thickness and the assessment of the periodontal status helps in the better treatment planning for aesthetic surgeries and mucogingival problems to achieve optimum therapeutic outcomes.Subjects reporting to the dental clinic are divided into three groups based on their age group(i) (18-24 yrs) , group(ii) froM(25-40 yrs), group(iii) (> 40 yrs) and into two subgroups male and female based on their gender . The gingival thickness will be measured by transgingival probing (TGP) using an endodontic reamer by anaesthetising the facial gingiva, in the anterior teeth region of both the arches. Result: The gingival thickness of the patients in varying age groups was found to be increasing with the increasing age, and it was thicker in males when compared with the females. And the thickness was higher in maxillary arch than the mandibular arch Conclusion: The knowledge about the gingival thickness is essential in planning the appropriate treatment for the patients and also it may improve the quality of the treatment and predict its outcome.
7. The Relations of Aspirin Resistance and Hypertension in Patients with Recurrent Ischemic Stroke Feolistin Mience Pobas, I Dewa Putu Pramantara, Rizaldy T. Pinzon, Agung Endro Nugroho
Aspirin is an antiplatelet agent that is often used in patients with ischemic stroke. However, patients known to develop resistance to aspirin are about 15 -25%. Resistance occurs due to hypertension allegedly suffered by patients which causes an increase in blood viscosity and platelet aggregation, and thus it reduces the effectiveness of aspirin antiplatelet. In addition to hypertension, antihypertensive drugs such as Angiotensin Converting Ezume Inhibitors (ACEI) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) can also lead to aspirin resistance through increased platelet aggregation. In the study, we investigated the effect of hypertension and the use of antihypertensive against aspirin resistance in patients with recurrent ischemic stroke. The study was performed using a descriptive method with a nested case-control study design. The study compared groups of patients with recurrent ischemic stroke who were aspirin resistance and who were non resistance based on the results of VerifyNow Aspirin System in the form of the value of aspirin reaction units (ARU). Patients were classified into groups aspirin resistant subjects if the ARU value was ≥550 and were grouped into groups of control if the ARU value was <550. Then a search through medical records and registers of each stroke patient was done. The results were then analyzed by using bivariate and multivariate analyzes. A total of 86 patients with recurrent ischemic stroke had verifynow test checkup. Seventy eight patients met the inclusion criteria and 20.5% of them were patients with aspirin resistance. Results of bivariate analysis showed hypertension and anti-hypertensive use in patients had no effect on aspirin resistance. Although ACEI group did not significantly affect the incidence of aspirin resistance recurrent ischemic stroke patients, but the use of ACEI more at risk of aspirin resistance than recurrent ischemic stroke patients who did not use aspirin. In conclusion, Hypertension and anti-hypertensive do not have any effect on the incidence of aspirin resistance in patients with recurrent ischemic stroke
8. Andrographolide cause retardation of insulin resistance changes in pancreatic and adipose tissues of male mice: Immunological and Biochemical study. Hanaa Abdulabbas Abdulameer
The continual increase in the incidence of insulin resistance and the associated metabolic syndrome has necessitated the thrust for the development of therapeutic agent that could ameliorate this condition. Even though the use of andrographolide for therapeutic purposes has gained wide acceptability, it’s used in the treatment of insulin resistance that associated with immunological, and pathophysiological derangements have not been evaluated. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effect of andrographolide on high fat diet induced insulin resistance in male mice immunologically. Forty eight apparently healthy ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups, CN, CP, HFA25 and HFA50 (12 mice per group). CP, HFA25 and HFA50 were fed with high fat diet for 24 weeks than HFA25 and HFA50 groups were treated for 15 days with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body weight respectively. The CN group was fed a standard diet, while the CP group was fed with high-fat diet containing 45% of energy derived from fat, 20% from protein and 35% from carbohydrate. The mice were sacrificed at the end of the treatment. Blood leptin, Glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and IgM, IgG, GGT, TNFα, IL-1β.IL-6 MD, adiponectin were determined. High fat diet was observed to induce increase in levels of leptin, AST, ALT, Glucose, insulin, ALP, Cholesterol, TG, VLDL, GGT, TNFα, IL-1β.IL-6 MDA and decline in adiponectin, IgM, IgG, and HDL, while 15 days treatment with andrographolide ameliorated the pathophysiological changes of insulin resistance in mice by use anti- insulin beta cell receptor to detection the number of beta cell of pancrase in treated groups according to immunperoxidase protocol. It was concluded that Andrographolide has potential ameliorative in insulin resistant mice
9. Effects of Zeorin and Dustanin Isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa on Histamine Released from RBL-2H3 Cells Agung Endro Nugroho, Navista Sri Octa Ujiantari, Sugeng Riyanto, Mohd. Aspollah Hj. Sukari, Kazutaka Maeyama
Two compounds have been isolated from the leaves and stem barks of Aegle marmelos Correa. They were zeorin (6a,22-dihydroxyhopane) and dustanin (15a,22-dihydroxyhopane). A. marmelos has an indication as anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy. In the study, these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on histamine release from mast cell culture, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, a tumor analog of mast cells. Histamine release from mast cell was induced by DNP24-BSA and thapsigargin, an immunologic and non-immunologic inducers respectively. The histamine release was determined by using HPLC with fluorometric detector. In the study, only zeorin markedly exhibited inhibitory activity on histamine release from mast cell induced by DNP24-BSA. Zeorin showed potent inhibitory effect by 40% decrease of histamine release. However, dustanin did not alter the histamine release from mast cells induced by thapsigargin. Based on the results, the inhibitory effect of zeorin is contributed by some mechanisms related to alteration on intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Molecular docking was conducted to examine possible mechanisms of zeorin and dustanin on Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. Our results suggest that zeorin does not blockade the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. In conclusion, zeorin isolated from A. marmelos inhibited the histamine release from mast cell by some mechanisms related to alteration on intracellular Ca2+ concentration however might be not related to blokage on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.
10. Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate Modulate Certain Steroidal Hormones, Vitamin D and Bile Acids in Diabetic Dyslipidemic Rats Mohamed Mahmoud El-Seweidy, Mervat El-Sayed Asker, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Sahar Mohamed Salem Hegazy
Objectives: To investigate the effect of long term intake of traditionally used hypolipidemic drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate, on cholesterol derived products including steroidal hormones, vitamin D, and bile salts. Materials and methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups including a normal control group and the other groups were rendered diabetic dyslipidemic (DD) and received placebo, atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o) “LD50 > 5000 mg/kg”, or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o) “ LD50 > 2g/kg” for 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Lipid profile, glycemic index and steroidal hormones levels were measured to evaluate the biological activities of these drugs. Results: DD rats demonstrated significant increase in serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index (AI), and bile acids along with HDL-C decrease. Serum insulin and insulin resistance increased after 4 weeks and decreased after 8 weeks. Insulin, free testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol and vitamin D levels showed significant decrease. Atorvastatin or fenofibrate treatment resulted in significant decrease in serum glucose, fructosamine, TC, TAG, bile acids and vitamin D levels along with increase in HDL-C, insulin, aldosterone and cortisol but failed to achieve normal level of free testosterone. Fenofibrate improved insulin sensitivity in DD only after 8 weeks. Conclusions: Administration of hypolipidemic drugs seems to modulate certain cholesterol derived products in DD rats.
11. Anredera cordifolia Leaves Extract as Antihyperlipidemia and Endothelial Fat Content Reducer in Male Wistar Rat Dwintha Lestari, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Irda Fidrianny
The objective of this research was to evaluate antihyperlipidemia and endothelial fat content reducer of ethanol leaves extract of Anredera cordifolia (binahong)in male Wistar rat. The rats were given by high fat feed and pure cholesterol (on week 0, 3rd, 7th and 11th). The doses of binahong extract which was used in this study were 50 mg/kg body weight (bw), 100 mg/kg bw, 200 mg/kg bw. The result showed that blood cholesterol in statin group was decreased 75.85%, binahong leaves extract of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw decreased 55.29%, 63.45%, 67.70%, respectively, and 46.52% decreased in negative control group. Triglycerides was decreased 61.64% in statin group, 41.08%, 47.59% and 50.66% in binahong leaves extract of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw respectively and 20.17% in negative control group, while LDL level decreased 97.14% in statin group, 81.31%, 89.01%, 95.33% in 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw binahong extract, respectively and 69.69% in negative control group. On the other hand, it showed that no significantly increase in HDL level in all of extracts groups which were 2.93% 3.56% 3.66%, respectively in binahong leaves extract of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw, while HDL level in the statin group was increased 9.86%, and 1.63% in the negative control group. Binahong leaves extract with doses of 50 mg/kg bw, 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw, significantly reduced total cholesterol level, triglycerides, LDL level compared to negative control group (p< 0.05) and had no influence in HDL level. Binahong leaves extract with doses of 50,100 and 200 mg /kg bw could reduce fat deposits in the endothelial cell of blood vessels.
12. An Update on Various Excipients Employed for Orodispersible Tablets with A Special Focus on Superdisintegrants Satyajit Panda, Varadi Latha, Snigdha Pattnaik, Laxmidhar Maharana, Ranjit Prasad Swain
This article summarizes the use of various excipients in the formulation of orodispersable tablets (ODTs). Though excipients are the inactive ingredients, but they provide life to the active pharmaceutical ingredients by converting them into dosage forms. Sometimes they can be a key determinant of dosage form performance. Reviews of the literature on adverse reactions attributed to excipients showed that the available data on excipients safety are limited in quantity and variable in quality. Their effects on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics although usually negligible without empirical conformation but sometimes are important. Specific excipients are suitable for ODTs, the categories of various excipients used in ODTs are discussed in the current review with special reference to diverse categories of superdisintegrants like natural, synthetic, and co- processed. To meet the needs of advanced tablet manufacturing, novel and improved superdisintegrants continued to be developed. It requires the development of various added functionality of excipients which are used to achieve formulations with desired end effects. In basic research and clinical trials those are sometimes included in the control substances in order to minimize commingling, which shows impact that the absence of the active ingredient is not the only variable involved, but also excipient.
13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Combination of Curcuma domestica Val and Phyllanthus niruri Linn Against Paracetamol–Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Rats Agil Novianto, Arief Nurrochmad, Ika Puspita Sari, Puji Astuti
The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the combination of Curcuma domestica Val and Phyllanthus niruri Linn extract against paracetamol-induced liver injury in Wistar rats. The different groups of animals were administered with vehicle (Na CMC 0.5%), sylimarin (100 mg/kg BW), C. domestica (100 mg/kg BW), P. niruri (200 mg/kg BW), combination of C. domestica and P. niruri (75:50; 50:100; and 25:150 in mg/kg BW) for 7 consecutive days. Thirthy minutes after last treatment all groups were terated with paracetamol (2.5 g/kg BW). The effect of sylimarin, C.domestica, P. niruri, and its combinations on serum transaminase (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphates (ALP), bilirubin, and total protein were measured in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further, the effects of the extracts or combinations of extracts on liver gluthatione content, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and catalase (CAT) were estimated. Sylimarin, C.domestica, P. niruri, and its combinations produced significant (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001) hepatoprotective effect by decreasing the activity of serum enzymes, bilirubin, and lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001) increased the levels of total protein, CAT, and GSH. The optimum combination dose of C. domestica and P. niruri was 75:50 in mg/kg BW compare to the extracs alone. It was suggested that the combination of C. domestica and P. niruri showed significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced liver injury in Wistar rats.
14. A Study to Assess the Level of Patient Satisfaction on Quality of Nursing Care Among Patients in SRM General Hospital, Kattankulathur.
Akilandeswari Konduru, T.Sujatha, Judie. A
Background: Patient satisfaction has become increasingly popular, as a critical component in the measurement of quality of care. The main aim of the study was to assess the level of patient satisfaction on quality of nursing care among patients in SRM general hospital,Kattankulathur. Method: Descriptive study was used. The study was conducted with 100 samples using non probability – Consecutive sampling techniques. Data collection was done for a period of 15 days. The study was conducted at SRM general hospital in kattankulathur. Results: The result shows that 66% of good satisfaction on level of nursing care. The study concludes that improvement of hospital work environments might be a relatively low cost strategy to improve and quality in hospital care and to increase patient satisfaction
15. E-Analogs: A Web-Based Cheminformatics Algorithm for Automated Ligand Analog Library Generation and In-Silico Drug Design Paulose R, Balakrishnan G, Andavar S S
Making use of computational approaches like virtual screening of compound libraries are essential steps in drug discovery mission. Several thousands of ligands and their analogs need to be computationally modeled and tested during early stages of drug discovery in order to identify the best molecule with desired characteristics against the target protein which causing the disease. Manual sketching of ligands and their analogs is a time consuming approach with high degree of human errors involved. eAnalogs is a novel computational algorithm to override the manual methods. eAnalogs is a fast, reliable web-accessible software for construction of automated ligand analog libraries. The algorithm is based on simple random sample statistical approach to create each analog of pre-defined atoms or functional groups with equal selection probability. The de novo ligand design tool helps medicinal chemists to rapidly and accurately generate hundreds of analogs from basic 2-dimensional chemical scaffold. The algorithm is capable of generating multiple analogs from single input chemical structure by adding user-defined atoms, functional groups and ring structures to the selected positions in a combinatorial manner. Software allows users to download result library in PDF and Structure Data Formats (SDF) that can be further used for processing virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS), Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
16. Synthesis , Characterisation and In Silico Study Of Vanillyl Mandelic Acid Usha S, Jaynthy C, Charles Kanakam Christopher
The hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine are the catecholamines secreted by adrenal glands situated on each kidney. These hormones are released into the blood stream and prepare the body for physical stress. During this heart beat increases, lungs expand , liver fat cells are mobilised and release the stored energy . Break down of epinephrine into metaepinephrine and vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) , norepinephrine into meta norepinephrine and VMA take place and are excreted through urine.The increase in VMA can cause cancers of adrenal glands and nervous system along with neuroendocrine disorders. The title compound synthesised was checked confirmed the functional groups using FTIR, melting point and for its anticancer property. This was docked to the receptor protein with PDB ID 1UNG .Prior to docking, the pharmacophore features of the ligand was also analysed. The results of these works are being discussed in this paper
18. A Study to Assess the Impact of Leprosy on Quality of Life Among Leprosy Patients in Government Rehabilitation Home at Paranur K.Geetha, Angeline Dhanalakshmi, A. Judie
Leprosy is the oldest disease known to man. The earliest written records describing true leprosy came from India around the period 600.Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by myco-bacterium leprae, an acid fast, rod- shaped bacillus. The disease mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and also the eyes. A total of 13 countries reported zero cases in 2013. Global statistics show that 206107 (96%) of new Leprosy cases were reported from 14 countries and only 4% of new cases from the rest of the world. The age-old stigma associated with the disease remains on obstacle to self-reporting and early treatment in which patients will not hesitate to come forward for diagnosis and treatment at any health facility must be created.