International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

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1. Assessment of Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Effects of Anethole-Rich Hydroalcoholic Extract of Pimpinella anisum
Azadeh Foroughi, Pouya Pournaghi, Reza Tahvilian, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Akram Zangeneh, Rohallah Moradi
Increasing microbial resistance to chemical antibiotics and their probabilistic side effects cause popularity of medicinal plants, so there is an instantaneous and steady need for novel antimicrobial compounds from plants. As we know, there is no documented proof on antibacterial effects of Pimpinella anisum (PA) hydroalcoholic extract in west of Iran. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was done to determine chemical composion. As a screen test to discover antibacterial properties of the extract, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to specify MIC. The findings show that the most substance found in PA was anethole. The results indicated the MIC and MBC values was 0.031 g/ml for PA except in case of B. subtilis which was 0.062 g/ml. Thus, the present research demonstrates the antibacterial effects of the medical plant on E. coli, S. aureus and B. subtilis, suggesting to use as antibacterial supplement in the developing countries towards the development of new therapeutic agent.

2. Chemical Constituents of Ficus septica Burm. F.
Consolacion Y Ragasa, Maria Roxanne Macuha, Mariquit M De Los Reyes, Emelina H Mandia, Ian A Van Altena
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Ficus septica Burm.f.  led to the isolation of β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6 ‘-O-fatty acid esters (1), α-amyrin fatty acid esters (2), and a mixture of β-sitosterol (3a) and stigmasterol (3b) in a 5:2 ratios from the twigs; and 3a, β-amyrin (4), and long chain saturated fatty alcohols (5) from the leaves. The structures of 1-5 were identified by NMR spectroscopy.

3. Multidetector CT Scan of the Chest Versus Transthoracic Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Pleural Diseases
Yamamah H, Sobhy K, Kamel K, Ahmed S, Hareedy A
Pleural diseases (as pleural effusions, pleural masses, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural thickening and pleural tumors) affect over 3000 subjects per million populations each year. Diseases of the pleura can be broadly classified into benign and malignant. The incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Imaging of the pleura can be challenging and it plays an important role in the diagnosis and subsequent management of patients with pleural diseases. This study aimed to compare the efficiency and reliability of Multidetector Computed tomography (MDCT) and Transthoracic Ultrasound (TUS) in diagnosis of pleural disease. Patients and Methods: This study included 71 patients with pleural disease. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, full clinical examination, MDCT chest and TUS examination. The patients included in the study were classified according to the pathology of the lesions into Group A (51 patients with malignant lesions) and Group B (included 20 patients with non- malignant lesions), The malignant patients included in the study were classified according to the pathology of the lesions into Group A1 (24 patients with primary malignant lesions) and Group A2 (27 patients cases with secondary malignant lesions). Conclusion: MDCT scan of the pleura is less sensitive than TUS in detection of pleural nodules, masses, pleural thickening, adhesion and also in detecting lung masses. However TUS examination of the pleura – in the presence of adequate window –could suspect nature of lung mass by Dupplex study, Yet TUS examination of the pleura is a localized examination and can’t be applied to whole chest without prior guidance by radiology either CXR or MDCT.

4. Estimation of Oxidative Stress and Serum Mineral (Ca, Mg, P) Status in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Patients
Niko Rostaei Rad, Anahita Kalirad, Javad Zavar-Reza, Mahmood Vakili
Background: Thyroid hormones have a crucial physiological role in maintaining the balance of the body’s metabolism. These hormones also play an important role in the metabolism of the bone system. On the other hand, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory and immune-mediated disorders including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Therefore, the present study has aimed to find the changes in the serum calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium levels, and to evaluate the effect of HT on the body’s antioxidant status. Methods: The studied people consisted of 86 subjects, who were divided into two groups: 43 individuals with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and 43 age-matched healthy individuals. This research checked the amounts of total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and also the mineral status and some other antioxidant status parameters. Results: It was observed that the mean TSH and SOD levels were increased significantly in HT patients (1.56 ± 0.73), compared to the control group (1.09 ± 0.62). On the other hand, the levels of T4, Ca, and Mg were meaningfully lower in HT patients, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the mean of T3, P, and PON-1, between the hypothyroidism and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The obtained outcomes established this hypothesis that people with HT have an elevated oxidative stress and a decreased mineral level. Therefore, the importance of monitoring the levels of those antioxidant capabilities and the mineral status in HT patients before treatment became more evident.

5. Experimental Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of 2-(3-Diethylcarbamoyl-2-Methyl-5-Phenyl-Pyrrol-1-Yl)-3-Phenyl-Propionic Acid
Zlatanova H I, Vladimirova S P, Kostadinov I D, Delev D P, Kostadinova I I
Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of inflammation and acute and chronic non-malignant pain. A large number of classic and contemporary NSAIDs contain a pyrrolic ring in their structure. In our study, 2-(3-Diethylcarbamoyl-2-methyl-5-phenyl-pyrrol-1-yl)-3-phenyl-propionic acid (compound 2f), an N-pyrrolylcarboxylic acid derivative structurally related to Celecoxib, is evaluated for antinociceptive properties after single and multiple (14 days) administration using animal pain models. Materials and methods: 40 Wistar rats are divided in 5 groups (n=8), treated with saline (control group), Metamizole 200 mg/kg b.w., compound 2f 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The nociceptive tests employ thermal (plantar and tail flick test) and chemical (formalin test) stimuli. Criteria for analgesic effect are increased latency in plantar and tail flick test and decreased paw licking time in formalin test. Results: Compound 2f increased nociceptive response latency in plantar test and decreased hind paw licking during first and second phase of the formalin test compared to the animals, treated with saline. Compound 2f did not increase reaction time in tail flick test. Conclusions: In conclusion, compound 2f has analgesic properties and they are dose and time dependent. The induced analgesia has increased duration after continuous administration and is most probably mediated by supraspinal and peripheral mechanisms.

6. Mechanism of Action of Androgens on Erythropoiesis – A Review
Delev D, Rangelov A, Ubenova D, Kostadinov I, Zlatanova H, Kostadinova I
The effects of androgens on hematopoiesis are well documented. These drugs have been major pharmacological agents for stimulation of erythropoiesis before the recombinant hematopoietic growth factors were available. Their effects on red blood cells are best studied. They stimulate erythropoiesis and increase levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit. There are conflicting data on the effects of androgens on leucopoiesis and platelets. The stimulatory effect of androgens on erythropoiesis is a problem in patients with hypogonadism undergoing testosterone replacement. Increased blood viscosity in these patients is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events. Three major mechanisms for the effects of testosterone on erythropoiesis are proposed: increased erythropoietin set point, increased iron utilization and conversion of androgens in estrogens. Testosterone-induced increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin is probably associated with elevated erythropoietin levels, but the available data on the relationship between testosterone and erythropoietin are too contradictory. The effects of testosterone on erythropoiesis are accompanied by other mechanisms, such as reduced hepcidin probably by direct inhibition of its transcription. The direct erythropoietic effect of testosterone is likely mediated by inducing the synthesis of IGF-1 through a receptor-mediated mechanism although this mechanism can not completely explain the effects of testosterone on erythropoiesis. Interaction of androgens with some cytokines and growth factors may also influence hemopoiesis. It is contradictory if the effect of testosterone on erythropoiesis requires its conversion into estrogens or not. More experimental and clinical trials are needed to investigate the exact mechanism of stimulatory effect of androgens on erythropoiesis.

7. Characterization and Application of N,O-Carboxy Methyl Chitosan Produced at Different Tempererature of Etherification
Prameidia Putra, Amir Husni, Indun Dewi Puspita
The aim of this research is to know the effect of etherification temperatures on characteristics of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC) and to know the healing effect of N,O-CMC ointment against burns in white mice. Derivatization of N,O-CMC was done by reacting chitosan compound with mono chloroacetic acid at different etherification temperatures i.e. 60, 75 and 90oC for 3 hours. The results indicated that etherification temperatures at 90oC have the best characteristics with 87.33±2.52 % in solubility, 209.50±0.50% in yield,  0.86±0.02 in degree of substitutions and the appearance of a functional group of -COO- at 1411.89 cm-1 and 1604.77 cm-1 wavelength. Etherification temperatures that produced the best characteristics of N,O-CMC was used to prepare N,O-CMC ointment to be added on vaseline album as the ointment base with 5% concentration. The effectiveness of burns healing by N,O-CMC ointment would be compared with other treatment namely Chitosan ointments 5%, Vaseline album ointment (negative control) and commercial ointment (positive control). Statistical analysis results indicated that N,O-CMC ointment has the best activities in white mice burns healing compared to three other treatments. N,O-CMC ointment was able to heal the burn of white mice in 32±1 days.

8. Comparative Study on Resisted Exercises Vs Stretching Intervention Over Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women
P Ponmathi, Akila A, V P R Sivakumar
The term menopause indicates for the last menstrual flow experienced by a woman, the menopause occurs at some times between the ages of 45 and 55 years for most women. But varies with race, economic status and nutrition. Regardless of these factors, a few women experience a very premature menopause before 40 years. Prior to actual menopause, when menstrual cycles are erratic, a woman may be referred to as premenopausal and following the menopause as postmenopausal. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of different exercise programs (resisted exercise and stretching program) over quality of life in postmenopausal women. Study design: – Quasi-Experimental Design, comparative study. Subjects: Applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 postmenopausal women were selected as postmenopausal women and were allotted with the exercise program. (15 women- resisted exercise program and 15 women- stretching exercise program). A format menopausal specific quality of life questionnaire, a simple questionnaire was filled up before the intervention period and at the end of 4 weeks after the intervention period. Instructions were given to the postmenopausal women according to the protocol of menopausal specific quality of life questionnaire. Results: The result of this study shows statistically significant difference between resisted exercise and stretching on menopausal symptoms by menopause specific quality of life questionnaire in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: This study concluded that 4 weeks of resisted exercise and stretching both reduces the intensity of menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal women.  And there by resisted exercises and stretching exercise program are both beneficial and can be included in physiotherapy intervention for postmenopausal women.

9. Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Essential Oil of Foeniculum vulgare
Azadeh Foroughi, Pouya Pournaghi, Mohsen Zhaleh, Akram Zangeneh, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Rohallah Moradi
Certainly, using herbal plants is the oldest way of mankind to treat the diseases. Considering the drug resistance and the side effects of chemical antibacterial drugs, the research approach is increasingly going toward using natural resources. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus, Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was done to specify chemical composion. As a screen test to detect antibacterial properties of the essential oil, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to determinate MIC. The results indicated that the most substance found in F. vulgare essential oil was Trans-anethole (47.41 %), also the essential oil of F. vulgare with 0.007 g/ml concentration has prevented E. coli and with 0.003 g/ml concentration has prevented S. aureus, from the growth. Thus, the research represents the antibacterial effects of the medical herb on E. coli and S. aureus. We believe that the article provide support to the antibacterial properties of the essential oil. The results indicate the fact that the essential oil of F. vulgare can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition. Fractionation and characterization of active molecules will be the future work to investigate.

10. Real Time PCR Detection of Acanthamoeba Species in the Egyptian Aquatic Environment
Mahmoud A Gad, Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy
Members of Acanthamoeba cause three main types of illness involving the brain and spinal cord (Granulomatous encephalitis), the eye (Acanthamoeba keratitis), and infections that can spread throughout the entire body (disseminated infection). A total of 96 water samples (Nile, ground, tap and swimming pool) were collected for detection of Acanthamoeba species that were cultivated on non-nutrient agar at 30oC. The isolated strains of Acanthamoeba spp. were identified based on the morphologic criteria of trophozoites and cyst stages. Molecular characterization of the isolated strains of amoebae was performed by using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results of the present study Acanthamoeba spp. was detected in 26 % of 96 different water samples by culture and in 22.9% by real time PCR. Percentages were 41.7 %, 29.2 %, 12.5 % and 8.3 % in Nile water, swimming pool water, ground water and tap water, respectively by real time PCR. Statistically, type of water had a strong significant effect on the detection rate of Acanthamoeba spp which prevailed in warmer months in different water types. However, seasonal association of Acanthamoeba spp. with water types was not statistically significant. In conclusion, due to the prevalence of Acanthamoeba species in many diverse environmental settings, more public awareness is needed about general hygiene procedures to prevent disease.

11. Myeloperoxidase as an Indicator of Liver Cells Inflammation Induced by Mercury
Trilianty Lestarisa, Francisca Diana Alexandra, Helena Jelita, Eko Suhartono
Mercury (Hg) is one of the dangerous heavy metal. Exposure to Hg can cause several health problems, including liver cells damaged. However, the mechanism of liver cells damages by Hg still not clear. In this present study, we proposed that Hg could induce liver cells damaged via inflammation pathway, and in this present study we have a different approach to measure the inflammation, i.e with myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity measurement. To determine that, we correlated the MPO activity with AOPPs level which has been known as a marker of inflammation. Also, we correlated Hg and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level, Hg level and MPO activity, H2O2 level and MPO activity, and thiocyanate (SCN) level and MPO activity for investigated the mechanism of inflammation by Hg. The results revealed that MPO is positively correlated with AOPPs level, Hg concentrations is positively correlate with H2O2 level and MPO activity, H2O2 and SCN level is positively correlated with MPO activity. From the results, it can be concluded that Hg-induced liver cell inflammation through influencing the MPO activity. It seems Hg increase H2O2 and SCN level which can be utilized by MPO to form HOSCN and promote an inflammation.

12. The Antimicrobial Activity of Moroccan Lavaender Esssentiel Oil Against Bacterial Pathogens Isolated Urinary Tract Infectious
Ez Zoubi Y, El Ouali Lalami A, Bousta D, Polissiou M, Daferera D, Lachkar M, El Khanchoufi A, Farah A
Lavandula stoechas genus is an important member of family Lamiaceae, it is widely distributed in north Provinces of Morocco and is used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. In order to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Lavandula stoechas essential oil as well as to compare its inhibitory effect versus commercial Antibiotics, it was tested against urinary isolates bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical compounds of essence of Lavandula stoechas were identified by GC-MS analysis. The paper disk agar diffusion method and the macrodilution assay for determination of Minimum Inhibitory and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MIC and MBC) were used. The main compounds of essential oil obtained were camphor, fenchone, camphene, borneol, α-pinene and 1,8-cineole.  Lavandula stoechas essential oil was very active against Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone of 17.2 ±0.8 mm and moderately active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MICs for Lavandula stoechas indicated that the best values were enregistered for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia with equal value of 2.5μg/mL, followed by Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values of 5μg/mL for each bacterium. Ofloxacin had the widest coverage against all bacteria’s, followed by Chloromphenicol. Cephalosporin’s third generation, Gentamicin and Amikacin have presented an average activity against pathogens. The bacteria of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia have been resistant for Penicillin antibiotics. The results showed that the essential oil of Lavandula stoechas was revealed highly inhibitory antimicrobial activity especially on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and can be used instead of chemical drugs to treat bacterial infections.

13. Ethnomedicinal Plants: Study on the Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Nigella sativa (Black Seed) Oil’s
Azadeh Foroughi, Pouya Pournaghi, Reza Tahvilian, Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Akram Zangeneh, Rohalah Moradi
Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the oil of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was run to specify their chemical composition. As a screen test to detect antibacterial properties of the oil, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to determinate MIC. Presence of phellandrene, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, Cis-carveol, Trans-anethole, Thymoquinone, Thymol, α-Longipinene and Longifolene were identified in composition of the oil of N. sativa. The MIC values was 0.031 g/ml for oil except in case of B. subtilis which was 0.015 g/ml. Moreover, MBC was resulted in 0.031 g/ml for the oil in all test bacteria. Thus, the research represents the antibacterial effects of the medical herb on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis. We believe that the article provide support to the antibacterial properties of the oil. The results indicate the fact that the oil of the plant can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition. Fractionation and characterization of active molecules will be the future work to investigate.

14. Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of β-Carotene Contents in Powdered Dunaliella salina Biomass
Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Younes Ghasemi
Bioactive compounds from powdered Dunaliella salina biomass were encapsulated using maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and gelatin (GE) as coating material. For encapsulation procedure, nine distinct mixtures composed of maltodextrin, gum arabic and gelatin in different ratios were studied. Microcapsules composed of MD:GA (90:10) exhibited the highest capability (93.22% efficiency) to preserve the β-carotene from thermal degradation during spray drying procedure. The obtained results also indicated that lower inlet air temperatures and flow rates could provide a better protection for β-carotene against thermal degradation. Moreover, the stored microencapsulated D. salina powders in 4 °C and dark conditions showed better stability during seven weeks of study. The microencapsulation protocol suggested in this study could be successfully employed for pharmaceutical and food industries handling with β-carotene-containing supplements and products.

15. In Silico and In Vitro Study of  R-Phenyl Alanine -S-Mandelate
Usha S, Charles Kanakam Christopher
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during the metabolic food digestion activities. If they are not scavenged properly, they may damage the normal cells and give cancerous  diseases. The small organic molecules are used to scavenge the ROS formed in the metabolic activities by undergoing redox reactions. Novel organic salt R-phenyl alanine -S-mandelate (RPASMA) was synthesised and was subjected to characterisation studies. The donor-acceptor interactions, charge transfer mechanism, hydrogen bonding interactions and van der Waals forces of attraction  were taking place in the crystallization resulting in the formation of  low energy gap  organic salt. The low energy gap title compound showed the high chemical reactivity and the low chemical stabilty, gave an idea to proceed with its In Silico study and In Vitro study. The pharmacokinetic study, admet study and molecular docking study were performed for the title compound. The electrochemical activity and  antioxidant activity of the title compound showed encouraging results. The anticancer  activity was carried for the title compound  using Liver carcinoma HepG2 cell-line and normal (Vero) cell line for the cell viabilty and cytotoxicity. The suitability of the title compound for the eradication of  ROS was confirmed from the In Silico and In Vitro studies which may minimise the chances of deadly cancerous disease formation.

16. Investigation of Prostate Disorders in 614 Patients Attended Alzahra/Urology Ward Between the Years 2013 to 2015 in Isfahan
Mohammad Yazdani, Zahra Tolou-Ghamari, Majid Asadi-Samani, Hamid Mazdak, Emadedin Yazdani
According to previous publications, cancers seem to be a major public health problem internationally. Consequently prostate cancer (PCa) is a medical common problem of male population. Therefore, the main objective of this investigation was to evaluate patients with prostate disorders for primary recognition of PCa. In this retrospective study, 614 patients with prostate disorders, those attended Alzahra/urology ward from the years 2013 to 2015 were enrolled. Clinical and demographical data were recorded and the statistical analyses of data processed using SPSS. There were 210, 269 and 135 patients with prostate disorders that could be corresponded to 353 days related to year 2013, 294 days associated to year 2014 and 237 days connected to year 2015. In the 98% age related prostate disorders were more than 40 years old. Malignant neoplasm of prostate was reported in 44% as positive. Except in the 2 % of those suffered from acute or chronic prostatitis, in the 54% of patients there was evidence regarding to prostate hyperplasia. The study findings verified an increase in the number of patients with such disorders by reference to the time interval of analysis and 44% reported malignancy. Further recommended planning, toward inspection for calculating disease prevalence, evaluation of the etiology, primary recognition of PCa in Isfahan/Iran appears to be advantageous.

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