International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. Aspirin and Dental Extractions: Still a Myth?
Nabeel Ahmed, Dhivya Lakshmi M, Nabeel Nazar M
Anti-platelet therapy is indicated for patients with thromboembolic diseases such as Myocardial infarction, Diabetes, Angina etc. It is not uncommon for such patients to present with dental problems requiring extraction. Continuing anti-platelet therapy during surgical procedures increases the risk of hemorrhage while discontinuing increases the risk of life threatening thromboembolic events. This article aims in evaluating the need to stop aspirin prior to dental extraction.
Abstract Online: 08-Jan-2015

2. Polymeric In-situ Gels as Smart Carriers for Pesticide Delivery in Agricultural Practice
Hari B.N.V., Lobo F.J., Devi D.R.
Agriculture is the backbone of our economic system which had been associated with the production of basic food crops. Tremendous benefits have been derived from the use of pesticides in agriculture, forestry and other sectors. They are used to control pests, diseases and weeds, but conventional pesticides can contaminate surface water through runoff from treated plants and soil which results in incomplete release of the molecules and short residence time at the required sites. To overcome this drawback and to maximize the utilization of these pesticides, in-situ gel formulation would be an effective alternative. In-situ gelling polymeric delivery system is a novel technique in which the active ingredient present in the form of solution gets converted into a gel upon application to the site of action. The formation of gel depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation; the in-situ gel formulation can sustain the release and also reduce the frequency of administration. So it is widely applied in drug delivery for ophthalmic, nasal, rectal and vaginal route of administration for improving both local and systemic effects of drug, and thereby its bioavailability. The objective of this review is to explore such new trends adapted for pesticide delivery systems to enhance the food production. Recently, these types of approaches are being explored in pesticide delivery systems to control various infections.
Abstract Online: 11-Jan-2015

3. In Vitro Assays of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav and Main Constituents: A Comparative Study
Laouini Salah Eddine, Ladjel Segni, Ouahrani Mohammed Ridha
This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenolic and condensed tannins constituents, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal by using various in vitro systems and analysis of marker compounds by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of methanolic, ethanolic and petroleum ether  extracts of  Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav (ATC). Antioxidant efficacies of three extracts were estimated by their abilities to scavenge DPPH˙ and total antioxidant activity expressed by reducing Mo (VI) to Mo (V). The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic, ethanolic and petroleum ether  extracts of  ATC was determined against eleven strains including Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as yeasts. The phenolic contents of the extracts as vanillin were found to be highest in methanol (68.15%) followed by ethanol (53.8%) and petroleum ether extract (1.56%). the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the extracts assayed through DPPH˙ method were also found to be highest with methanol extracts followed by ethanol and petroleum ether extracts. For the antibacterial and  antifungal  activity the extracts showed moderately activity, compared to standard antibiotics, inhibiting all tested bacteria except Pseudomonas aerigunosa. The most sensitive microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (diameter of inhibition is 16 mm) showed in methanolic extract at 4 mg/ml. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biological activities of Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav extract and our findings suggest the possibility of using the aerial parts as a novel source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents for the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Abstract Online: 20-Jan-2015

4. Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections Associated With Cancer Patients
Goyal, A, Jain, S K
Background: Cancer patients are immunosuppressed and neutropenic due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, stem cell or bone marrow transplant, steroids or the cancer itself. They may carry or acquire infections within the healthcare settings. This study was designed to assess the frequency of acquiring nosocomial infections in cancer patients during immunosuppression and neutropenic conditions (neutrophil count <1000/mm3). Design: This study was carried out at Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Gwalior, India. A total of 90 patients admitted for >150 days squaring 45 males, 35 females and 10 pediatric patients were analyzed for overall and site specific infections during March 2003 to July 2003. Considering random distribution, 27 urine samples, 22 vaginal, 17 throat, 14 pus and 10 sputum swabs were collected. Method: Direct microscopic examination, cultural characteristics and biochemical analysis were performed to identify the bacterial cultures. Results: Of the 90 patients screened for nosocomial infections, 39.75% gram-positive and 60.25% gram-negative, 12 bacterial species belonging to 9 genera were identified contributing 86.66% to overall nosocomial infections. Conclusion: Patients were either carrying the infections prior to admission or have acquired the same later, identified and recommended for the further treatment. The cost of the treatment is an over increasing number in current situation suggesting an intense screening shall be performed prior admitting the patients to the facility.
Abstract Online: 23-Jan-2015

5. Problem Based Learning in Pharmacy schools of India: Is it high time to implement?
Kingston Rajiah
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an edifying technique engrossed on person-focused erudition, trivial clusters conversation using expediters and functioning over glitches to obtain facts. Initially it was executed in the year 1960 in medical education. This technique may be a significant instrument in vigor professional learning, wherein undergraduate students acquire by functioning with actual cases. PBL has to be amalgamated into pharmacy teaching in India in an exertion to make upcoming pharmacists to encounter the perplexing hassles of the pharmacy line of work, specifically the establishment of excellence in patient overhaul. The foremost barricades for instigating PBL are educator and supervisor preparation and an essential drop in tutorial mass, which may upsurge the fee of pharmacy schooling. The PBL syllabus gives the impression to progress the educational enactment of pharmacy graduates when equated to the outmoded technique of teaching. Pharmacy Board of India and educators of pharmacy schools must reflect progressively announcing PBL systems into the pharmacy curriculums in India.
Abstract Online: 27-Jan-2015

6. Endodontic Stabilizers: A Myth
Nivethithan. T, Sindhu Ramesh, James D. Raj
Endodontic implants or stabilizers are metallic extension of the tooth root into the bone. With increase in the scope of implantology in dentistry, the endodontic implants help provide a conservative treatment method to retain a natural teeth rather than replacing it. These endodontic implants are inserted through the previously prepared canals of the tooth into the osseous portion of the periodontium just like a conventional implant. They are indicated mostly in severely mobile teeth in an aim to retain the natural teeth rather than extracting and replacing it with an endosseous implant. These endodontic implants, even though having very good success in some cases had encountered failure due to many factors which made the practitioners not to consider them as a primary mode of treatment. This article tends to assess the success and failure of endodontic implants by reviewing various case reports and studies presented over the time.
Abstract Online: 29-Jan-2015

7. Morphological Analysis of Lingula of Mandible in Dry South Indian Skulls
K. R. Rajesh Nidhi
The margin of the mandibular foramen is irregular.Lingula is a tongue-like flap of bone that overlaps the mandibular foramen anteromedially  .It is surmounted   by a sharp spine, the lingual of the mandible which gives attachment to the spheno mandibular ligament; at its lower and back part is a notch from which the mylohyoid groove runs obliquely downward and forward, and lodges the mylohyoid vessels and is located on the medial aspect of mandibular ramus and knowledge regarding its shape, size, and location is clinically significant in oral and maxillofacial surgeries.
Abstract Online: 31-Jan-2015

8. Some Matrix metalloproteases as non-invasive biomarkers for bladder cancer in Egyptian patients
Nervana Samy, Mie Afify, Maha Hashim, Mohamed Shaalan
Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy among Egyptian males; early diagnosis and prompt treatment have been shown to improve survival at both initial diagnosis and recurrence. In the present study we aim to investigate the role of MMP-7, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in bladder cancer progression and their relation to clinicopathological features. The study was conducted on 62 patients with bladder cancer beside 30 healthy control subjects. The levels of MMP-7, MMP-9 and TIMP-1were measured in sera of all patients before treatment and healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (ELISA). Our results showed that serum MMP-7 and MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than control group (p<0.001) and increased according to stage, size of tumor, more lymph node involvement and metastatic disease. In contrast, serum TIMP-1 levels were lower (p<0.001).
Abstract Online: 1-Feb-2015

9. A Heuristic Approach for the Enhanced Recovery of Anti-leukemic L-Asparaginase from Bacillus licheniformis by the Statistical Optimization of Three-Phase Partitioning System
Santosh Kumar Jha, Hare RamSingh, Vinod Kumar Nigam, Ambrish Sharan Vidyarthi
L-Asparaginase has been shown to possess anti-leukemic characteristic, mainly against Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia. The three phase partitioning (TPP) method was used to purify the L-asparaginase produced by Bacillus licheniformis. The partitioning was carried out by using iso-octane and ammonium sulphate fractionation. The recovery of enzyme was enhanced by optimizing the factors like ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of iso-octane to fermentation broth, temperature and pH by Taguchi orthogonal array. Under the optimized condition 37.93 % enhanced recovery of enzyme with fold purification of 10 was achieved.
Abstract Online: 6-Feb-2015

10. Flare Up in Endodontics: A Review
Tharangini Raveenthiraraja, Pradeep Solete
An endodontic flare-up is a complication of endodontic treatment which is defined as an acute exacerbation of aymptomatic pulpal or periapical pathoses after the initiation or continuation of root canal treatment. Flare-up is a true complication where, within a few hours to a few days, after the endodontic procedure a patient has significant increase in pain or swelling or a combination of the two, wherein the patient must come in for an unscheduled visit, for emergency treatment. In this review article we underline the etiology, clinical conditions, causes, diagnosis, various treatment modalities for relief of pain and swelling in such cases and prevention of flare-up.
Abstract Online: 6-Feb-2015

11. Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Different Extracts of Juglans regia (Walnut) & Erethia laevis (Ajaan Vruksh) Against Salivary Micro Flora
Mutha M., Deshpande R.R., Shep S., Deshpande N.R., Torne R.
Objective: evaluation of antimicrobial properties of different concentration of extracts of Juglans regia and Erethia. Laevis extracts against human salivary micro flora. Method: microbial inhibition assay was prepared using the agar ‘well-diffusion’ method. Sterile 8.0mm diameter of well were impregnated with the extract of different concentrations. Results:  This study compares antimicrobial activities of “Juglans regia and Erethia Laevis”. The zone of inhibition is measured by excluding the diameter of the well. These zones of inhibition are directly proportional to the concentration.Conclusion: The ingredients derived from Erethia laevis & Juglans regia plants used in this study are herbal, they are eco-friendly and do not produce any side effects as well as are effective and economical, as compared to the synthetic drugs. The study also confirmed the antimicrobial potentials of the plant at different concentrations and can be used as preventive and therapeutic measure in dentistry.
Abstract Online: 6-Feb-2015

12.Antimicrobial potential of hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives: A Review
Neeraj Kumar, Lalit Singh Chauhan
Over the past few decades, search for newer antimicrobials remains an area of intensive investigation in the field of medicinal chemistry due to resistance developed by micro-organism to conventional antibiotics. Hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives play an important role in development of various pharmacological activities such as anticonvulsant, antimalarial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antiviral, anti-tubercular, antiproliferative and antitumor activities. This review highlights antimicrobial activity shown by various hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives.
Abstract Online: 20-Feb-2015

13. Ventricular Tachycardia in Dengue Fever
Mohammed M. Z, Venugopal.K, Kadappa Jaligidad, Bharathraj M.Y, Anudeep Reddy
Dengue fever is an endemic vector borne viral infection in many parts of tropical countries. Dengue myocarditis is an uncommon complication of dengue fever that rarely complicates into ventricular tachycardia. We report a case of 24 year old male presented to emergency department with history of sudden onset of chest pain, with prior history of fever with myalgia, joints pain since 5 days. On examination, patient was in shock, ECG revealed ventricular tachycardia [VT]. Post DC shock with 200 joules, VT reverted and ECG showed sinus rhythm.  Further investigation supported that patient was suffering from dengue myocarditis.
Abstract Online: 28-Feb-2015

14. Modulation of Serum Inflammatory Pattern, Oxidative Stress, Selected Neurotransmitters in Cerebral Cortex  of Alloxan  Diabetic Rats Role of Curcuminoids and Fish Oil as Therapeutic Agents
Mohamed Mahmoud Elseweidy, Nabila  Zein, Magda M. Hassan, Fathy Y. Mohamed
The current  study aimed mainly to configurate any changes in selected neurotransmitters pattern , some  inflammatory markers , oxidative stress in the brain of alloxan diabetic rats and to illustrate any relation  between neurotransmitters activity and the inflammation degree . Effect of Fish oil  and curcuminoids  either individually or in association form  were tested as neuroprotective agents. Materials and Methods :Fourty  adult male western albino rats were rendered diabetic by alloxan administration ,then  sub classified into five groups ,the first one received no drugs , served as diabetic control (DC) . The second one received Fish oil 50 mg /kgbody weight , the Third one received curcuminoids  50 mg/kg  while the fourth one received Fish oil in association with curcuminoids daily for 60 days  using the same doses used before. Another group of  normal rats (10)  was allocated , received no treatment and served as normal group. Results :  Compared to normal group we have observed an increased level of MDA , serum IL-6 and  CRP along with  of GSH , DA  ,  AchE  and GABA decrease  in the cerebral cortex of  alloxan diabetic rats .Fish oil , curcuminoids either alone or in combination form have reversed   these Biomarkers to certain degree.
Abstract Online: 28-Feb-2015





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