International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

e-ISSN: 0975 1556

p-ISSN 2820-2643

Peer Review Journal

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1. The Importance of Locus of Control, Health Belief and Empowerment in Determining Self Care Behavior in South Asian Patients with Type II Diabetes : A Qualitative Study
Hashim Mohamed, Badriya Al Lenjawi, Paul Amuna,  Francis Zotor
Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to elucidate culturally relevant psychological, social and disease specific variables affecting life style decision making process of South Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a series of 20 focus group interviews with 200 adult South Asian    patients with  type 2 diabetes .Focus group interviews were audio taped and transcripts were coded using qualitative data analysis software.  Results: The prevalent and most frequent themes that emerged  from these interviews were 1)  the impact of diabetes manifested in  psychological terms “frustrated”, fear of complications “wonder  if I am next” ; 2) concept of  religion ( God ) as an important factor in the course of the disease, complications and fatality; 3) diabetes related stress “being watched “and feeling guilty ; 4) patient-doctor interaction  manifested in lack of empathy ,lack of continuity of care  and using medical jargon ; 5) improper health education seen in terms of  lack of privacy and didactic education ; 6) locus of control was external among most respondents “doctors are not helping us” ; 7) diet was explained in terms of “bondage” and “nourishing power” ; 8) medications intake was a problem in terms of “”skipping pills”, and the use of insulin as” a punishment” ; 9) empowerment was lacking among most respondents “fear  of  looking at the machine”, ” we need to sit together in a group”; 10)  health belief as an important factor in diabetes management, being in control and belief in efficacy. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that factors influencing diabetes management among South Asian patients with  type 2 diabetes  are best understood by considering religious factors, psychosocial influences and   health system related factors.

2. Application of Magnetic Stirrer for Influencing Extraction Method on Tectona grandis as Analgesic Activity
Hingmire Yashashri R, Javalgikar Akshay S, Mane Laxmi  B, Kale Sagar S,  Chikodi  Prmod B
The aim of the current study was to show the application of magnetic stirrer for influence of extraction methods on plant material. To achieve maximum possible extraction efficiency, it becomes necessary to optimize the extraction methodology. Magnetic stirrer, which possess certain advantages, these are, the reduction in organic solvents consumption, improvement in extraction efficiency. Tectona grandis is commonly known as “teak” belongs to verbenaceae family. The whole plant is medicinally important and many reports claim to cure several diseases according to Indian traditional system of medicines.  The different extracts from various parts of teak shows expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic properties. In proposed work apply magnetic stirrer for influencing extraction method to evaluate analgesic activity on Tectona grandis extract.

3. A Short Review on Liver Cirrhosis
P Hemasoundarya, Y Madhuri, A Narendra Babu, J Naga Lakshmi
The liver is 2nd largest organ, first largest gland. Liver plays a vital role in synthesis of proteins (for example, albumin, clotting factors and complement), detoxification, and storage (for example, vitamin A). In addition, it participates in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage, caused mainly due to chronic alcoholism and chronic hepatitis B&C.  These nodules protrude and make the liver surface uneven and turn it to pale brown. Proliferation of hepatocytes to form regenerative nodules is obscure. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, dilated veins in the esophagus, Cirrhosis is often preceded by hepatitis and fatty liver (steatosis), independent of the cause.

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