1. Comparison of Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Oral Hypoglycemics and Insulin.
Ashok Goyal, Ashok Kumar Agarwal, Abdul Sajid Mansoori
Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease in etiology and occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough amount of insulin or when there is resistance towards its action on the body. The present study aimed to evaluate factors affecting the quality of life among patients diagnosed with type-2 diabetes mellitus and taking treatment with insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Material & Methods: 200 patients who were diagnosed with type-2 diabetes mellitus and taking either insulin or oral hypoglycemics drugs for at least 12 weeks who were attending outpatient department enrolled for the present study by simple random sampling. Written informed consent was taken from each study participant. Patients who had chronic illnesses other than diabetes and patients who were being treated by both insulin and oral hypoglycemics drugs were excluded from the study. Results: About 68% of the patients were on insulin while 76% of the patients who were on oral hypoglycemics had a satisfactory quality of life. The cut-off value was being 87.5 i.e. the 50% of the total possible mean score value. Based on the mean quality of life score among study participants it was found that mean the quality of life score values among patients on oral hypoglycemic drugs was 115.3 and mean the quality of life score values among patients on insulin was 105.9. This difference was statistically non-significant (P-value >0.05). Conclusion: We concluded from the present study that patients who were on oral hypoglycemics had a satisfactory quality of life in comparison to the patients on insulin therapy. The poor quality of life scores was significantly (P-value <0.05) associated with lower socioeconomic status, lesser physical activity and lesser education, duration of illness, and positive family history.

2. Assessment of Salivary Gland Pathology by Ultrasound and Doppler Modalities.
Bijendar Kumar Meena, Sweta Meena
Background: Various studies were reported that diseases of salivary glands are diverse in etiology ranging from the inflammatory etiology to a diverse category of benign and malignant neoplasms. Many of these salivary gland pathologies are rare and the diagnostic methods available are also not optimal and less sensitive. Material & Methods: The present prospective study was conducted at department of radiodiagnosis of our tertiary care hospital. The study duration was of one year from January 2019 to January 2020. A sample size of 50 was calculated at 95% confidence interval at 10% acceptable margin of error. Patients with swelling or lesions of salivary glands were included in the present study irrespective of age, sex duration of history and etiology. Results: In the present study, on the basis of colour doppler findings of the pathological lesion, the benign lesions like pleomorphic adenoma reported peripheral vascularity and the inflammatory lesions had diffuse and marked vascularity in the salivary gland. The malignant lesions showed central vascularity on color Doppler. Out of the 50 study participants the benign lesions showed well-defined margins and the malignant lesions reported irregular margins on ultrasonography findings. The most common pathological lesion was benign type which was found in 90% of the cases which was followed by malignant lesion which was reported in 10% patients. Conclusion: We concluded from the present study that ultrasonographic findings can differentiate various salivary gland pathology. Along with colour Doppler findings, the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography is increased.

3. Effect of Chronic Unpredictable Stress on Behaviour and Apoptosis in Zebrafish Heart.
Nivedita Manoharan, Dheepthi Jayamurali, Sathya Narayanan Govindarajulu
Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Zebrafish has emerged as a promising animal model for studying stress related disorders. To evaluate the effect of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure on anxiety behaviour and apoptosis in zebrafish heart.320 adult zebrafish of both sexes were used. They were divided into Control and CUS group of 160 fish each. CUS groups were exposed to CUS for 15 days. The anxiety behaviour was assessed using novel tank and light/dark preference test. The effect of stress induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes was assessed using qRT-PCR and cortisol levels were evaluated using ELISA. Novel tank showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in average duration, transitions and time spent in upper tank, and a significant increase (p<0.05) in the latency to reach the upper portion of the tank, freezing duration and erratic movement in stressed zebrafish. In light/dark preference test, CUS exposed zebrafish spent more time in the light compartment. A significant increase (p<0.05) in cortisol level and crf expression and decrease in gr expression (p<0.05) was observed in stressed zebrafish. A significant increase (p<0.05) in p53, noxa, tnfα, caspase3 expression and decrease (p<0.05) in of bcl2 expression was seen in heart of the CUS group. Exposure of zebrafish to chronic unpredictable stress has induced anxiety like behaviour. The increased expression of p53, noxa, tnfα, caspase3 and decreased expression of bcl2 indicates the onset of apoptosis in zebrafish heart.