2. Prevention and Control of Nosocomial –Pneumonia P.SanilKumar, C K. Dhanapal, R.Manavalan, Krishnamurthy Rao, Sandhya Ravi
Hospitals are created for cure the disease but not for the spreading of diseases, even though this statement is true to the theoretical concept but it is not possible practically due to various risk factors. The spread of infection in the hospitals occurs due to the microorganism. Nosocomial Pneumonia add significantly to the economic burden of managing the underlying disease that has lead to hospitalization of the patient. More than 90% of reported infections are bacterial where as viral, fungal or protozoal infections are less commonly involved in hospitalacquired infections. This project deals with bacterial nosocomial pathogens only, since they are by far major causes of nosocomial Pneumonia. Objective of the present study include the identification, prevention and control of nosocomial Pneumonia in our hospitals. The ultimate aim is the reduction of nosocomial Pneumonia and their costs. Baseline study for morbidity pattern in the hospitals, finding sources of exogenous and endogenous sources of nosocomial Pneumonia. Nosocomial Pneumonia also is the infection most likely to be fatal, with mortality rates exceeding 30%, and is the most expensive to treat. Moreover, patients on mechanical ventilators develop Pneumonia morefrequently and are more likely to have a fatal outcome than those not requiring assisted respiration (Lynch et al 1997). In large part, these findings reflect the severity of the underlying disease.Most nosocomial pneumonias occur by aspiration of bacteria growing in the back of the throat (oropharynx) or stomach. Intubation and mechanical ventilation greatly increase the risk of infection. Suggest measures to minimize the nosocomial Pneumonia and suggest guidelines for efficacious management of nosocomial infections.