Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


Notice: "doi number" allotment has been started for present and past manuscripts


Volume8,Issue7

1. Comparative Studies of Electrocardiographic Changes with Local Anesthesia in Oral Surgery with the Use of Holter Monitoring
Hristo Daskalov, Lyudmila Georgieva Vladimirova-Kitova
Abstract
Introduction: Patients with heart diseaseoften do not get adequate surgical interventions because doctors fear the complications that may develop after the use of vasoconstrictors in local anesthetics. The purposeof the study is to determine the kind ofinfluence that Adrenalin has in the local anesthetic Unistesin in outpatient service of surgical patients that suffer from controlled forms of hypertension, coronary artery disease – angina and myocardial infarction, abnormalities of heart rhythm, through a 24 hour Holter monitoring of the cardiogram (before, during and after administering anesthesia), along with analyzing the values of the hemodynamic indicators. Studydesign:The object of the study is a group of 60 people with heart diseases, selected by admission criteria, that have had an oral surgical intervention with the use of local anesthesia. They have been randomly divided into two groups: First group- 30 patients that have been given an anesthetic with corrigent (Ubistesin, 1: 200 000, 3M-ESPE), Second group- 30 patients that have been given an anesthetic without corrigent (UltracainD, Aventis). The ST segment and QT interval were observed. An analysis of the hemodynamic indicators was done. Results: The results show a direct influence of the vasoconstrictors on the cardiac activity. The cardiogram showed no statistically significant difference in the changes of the studied markers (ST-segment and QT- interval), along with the main hemodynamic indicators (mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, double product) in the patient groups that have used a different anesthetic(with and without corrigent). (Р>0.05). Conclusion:It can be concluded that the risk of using an anesthetic that contains 1:200 000 vasoconstrictors is minimal, while at the same time the quality of the anesthesia is sufficiently good so that the main stress component, that leads to the release of a large amount endogenous adrenalin, can be eliminated.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

2. A Prospective Study on the Prevalence of Major Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Various Cancer Patients
Mallika S, Ramam Sripada, Triveka Pavani P V, Kiran Kumar K, Durga Varalakshmi K, Magharla Dasaratha Dhana Raju
Abstract
Background: Cancer is one of the major leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is one of the most stressful events when a person is diagnosed with it and this stress is often a triggering factor for depression and anxiety. Untreated psychological disorders with any other medical condition may worsen the individuals’ quality life. In this study we made an attempt to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress and their severity among various cancer patients. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving different types of cancer patients who were undergoing different treatment procedures for a period of 6 months. Patients of both genders who are above 18 years were included in the study and all types of cancers which are available in the hospital were taken into consideration for assessing depression, anxiety and stress. Patients with past history of psychological disorders were excluded from study. Data was collected by using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Results: During the study period, a sample of 232 cancer patients were interviewed and screened for depression, anxiety and stress. A total of 74 (31.9%) patients were observed with depression/anxiety/stress or in combination. According to age wise categorization, majority of the cancer patients with any kind of disorder (depression/anxiety/stress alone or in combination) were found between the age group of 41 to 50 years (28.4%), followed by the age group of 51 to 60 years (25.7%). Out of the 74 cancer patients with abnormal mental health, 29(39.2%) were observed with depression alone, 16(21.6%) were observed with anxiety alone, 17(23%) were observed with depression associated with anxiety, 1(1.4%) was observed with depression associated with stress, 4(5.4%) were observed with anxiety associated with stress and 7(9.4%) were observed with depression associated with both anxiety and stress. Conclusion: Psychological conditions like depression, anxiety and stress are more prevalent in chronic medical conditions like cancer. In our study 31.9% of the patients were observed with depression alone or anxiety alone or in combination associated with stress. Females are more prone to depression and males are more prone to anxiety.The prevalence of depression alone was observed to be high when compared to the remaining disorders.Our results revealed that patients with breast cancer and gynaecological cancers have the highest prevalence of depression and anxiety (often associated with stress) among all the cancers.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

3. Multi-Targeted Therapy of Hepatic Fibrosis by Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
ElShebiney S A, Salem N A, Ahmed H H, Aglan H A
Abstract
Adipose tissue holds a promise for regenerative medicinal approaches. This study investigated the competency of stem cells derived from the adipose tissue in thioacetamide (TA)- induced liver fibrotic disease model in rats. Adipose tissue derived-mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) were isolated from female Wistar rats, characterized, and cultured in DMEMmedia (undifferentiated) or HGF enriched media (differentiated). Both AT-MSCs were labelled with PKH26.Forty male Wistar rats were used and divided into four groups; group (1) served as negative control group, groups (2), (3) and (4) received TA (i.p., 100 mg/kg, three times weekly for 6 weeks), thereafter group (2) served as positive control group, group (3) reveived a single injection of undifferentiated AT-MSCs (3×106 cells), and group (4) reveived a single injection of of differentiated AT-MSCs (3×106 cells). After two months of AT-MSCs single injection, biochemical parameters and proteins expression were measured. The engraftment of PKH26-labeled differentiated AT-MSCs in injured liver was confirmed. TA administration produced fibrotic changes characterized by increased serum enzymes activity and reduced albumin and fibrinogen. Additionally, hepatic TGF-β and HGF contents were elevated. Treatment with AT-MSCs restored liver functions associated with decreased TGF-β and elevated HGF. The expression of HNF4a, CYP7a1, and albumin was upregulated after transplantation, while CK-7, AFP, and β-5-Tub were down-regulated. The aforementioned effects were more prominent after hepatocytes transplantation.The present work enlightens the aptitude of adipose tissue in producing functional in vitro differentiated hepatocytes that promote regeneration of fibrotic liver. The transplantation of hepatocytes proved superior proficiency rather than naiive stem cells.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

4. Formulation and Comparative Evaluation of Aceclofenac Tablets by Two Granulation Methods
S Madhavi Latha, N Gayatri Devi, N Anusha, M Sameera, N Silpa, N Mehar Lakshmi
Abstract
The objective of the present investigation was to design suitable Immediate release tablet formulation of Aceclofenac by using cross carmellose sodium as super-disintegrant in four different concentrations i.e., 0, 4, 6, 8% w/w of tablet weight by two granulation methods i.e., Wet and melt granulation methods. The objective of the research was to compare the two granulation methods i.e., wet and melt granulation methods. Melt granulation provides an advantageous method of granulation which results in a tablet dosage form showing immediate and fast release of drug. The main scope of this research work was to compare pre-compression, post-compression and in Vitro drug release properties of the tablets prepared by two granulation methods. Aceclofenac is an analgesic belonging to the class of NSAIDs. Four formulations (FW, F1, F2, and F3) of IR tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and four formulations of melt granulation (FM, F4, F5, and F6) were prepared. All the formulations were evaluated for their pre and post compression properties and also the in Vitro dissolution tests were carried out. It was found that the melt granulation formulations showed faster and immediate release compared to that of wet granulation method. Among all the formulations F6 formulation containing 8% CCS showed the faster drug release.  Also the best formulations of both the granulation methods i.e., F3 and F6 were compared.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

5. Analysis of Bioactive Metabolites from Candida albicans Using (GC-MS) and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity
Mohanad Jawad Kadhim, Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammed, HaiderMashkoor Hussein
Abstract
The objectives of this research were analysis of the secondary metabolite produced by Candida albicans and evaluation antibacterial activity. Bioactives are chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites. Thirtynine bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract ofCandida albicans. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. GC-MS analysis ofCandida albicans revealed the existence of the 1,4-Benzendiol ,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)- , Thieno[2,3-c]furan-3-carboniterile , 2-amino-4,6-dihydro-4,4,6,6-te , Z-8-Methyl-9-tetradecenoic acid , i-Propyl 9-tetradecenoate , 9,12,15,-Octadecatrienoic, 2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1-[(trimethyl , 17-Octadecynoic acid , Oxime-, methoxy-phenyl- , Edulanll , p-Menth-1-en-3-one ,semicarbazone , 5,7-dodecadiyn-1,12-diol , Methyl 2-O-benzyl-d-arabinofuranoside , Erythritol , d-Glycero-l-gluco-heptose , D-Glucose , 6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl- , l-Gala-l-ido-octonic lactone , Desulphosingrin ,  2(3H)-Furanone , 3-butyldihydro- , β-Hydroxyquebrachamine , 1,4-benzendiol , 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)- , 9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,24,25-triol,(3β,5Z,7E)-,N-(4,6-Dimethyl-2-pyrimi-dinyl)-4-(4-nitrobenzylideneamino)benzel , 2,7-Diphenyl-1,6-dioxopyridazino [4,5:2′,3′] pyrrolo[4′,5′-d]pyridazin , 2-Methyl-9-β-d-ribofuranosylhypoxanthine , Ergosta-5,22-dien-3-ol,acetate,(3β,22E)- , 10-Heptadecen-8-ynoic acid , methyl ester , (E)- , Chromone , 5-hydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2,3-dimethyl- , 1-Methyl-8-propyl-3,6-diazahomoadamantan-9-ol , 1-(4-Amino-furazan-3-yl)-5-dimethylaminomethyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazole , 5-Bromo-8-[(4-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]quinolone , Carbamic acid , N-methyl-,(6-chloro-2-methyl-1,1-dioxidobenzo) , d-Mannose ,  α-D-Glucopyranoside,O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw.3)-β-D- , 12-Methyl-oxa-cyclododecan-2-one , Acetamide , N-methyl-N-[4-[2acetoxymethyl-1-pyrrolidyl]-2-butyn , Acetamide , N-methyl-N-[4-(3-hydroxypyrrolidinyl)-2butynyl]- , Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-17β-ol , Curan-17-oic acid, 19,20-dihydroxy-,methyl ester,(19S)- , 2,5,5,8A-Tetramethyl-6,7,8,8atetrahydro-5H-chromen-8-ol and 6-Octadecenoic acid. Proteus mirabilis was very highly antifungal activity (6.19±0.20) mm while Neriumolender(Alkaloids) has maximum zone formation (7.67±0.21) mm against Aspergillus fumigatus.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

6. Role of Plasma Fatty Acids in Egyptian Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Nagwa Meguid, SafeyaEffat, HananHussien, HananAzzam, Amr S Gouda, Mona Anwar, Hebatalla S Hashem, Haytham Hassan
Abstract
The present study aimed to assessthe effectiveness of n-3 PUFA supplementation on ADHD clinical symptoms and its tolerabilityin a randomized controlled studyon Egyptian children.Vigil continuous performance testandConners’ questionnaires were used to assess changes in ADHD symptoms in 40 children; another 40 matched children were included in the study as controls.Supplements rich in EPA, DHA were randomly allocated for 4 months for only 20 cases. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) were assessed using Tandem Mass Spectrometry.The results revealed low levels of plasma omega-3 fatty acids were noted in children with ADHD compared to controls. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in significant increase in plasmaEPA, DHA in children with ADHD. No adverse effects were detected after n-3 PUFA supplement.According to parent version of the Conners’ questionnaire improvement in symptoms was observed but it was not statistically significant except for the subscale measuring inattention.We concluded that Egyptian children with ADHD exhibited low levels of omega-3 fatty acids in polar lipids isolated from their plasma and are inversely correlated with degree of inattention. Ourresults support n-3 PUFA safety and tolerability andappear to be effective in alleviating symptoms of inattention.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

7. Formulation and Development of Polysaccharide Based Mesalamine Nanoparticles
Balaji Yadav Maddina, Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana
Abstract
In the present research work mesalamine loaded nanoparticles were developed by hot homogenization method by using different concentration of sodium alginate as polysaccharide and ratio of triglycerides monostearate and stearic acid, for site specific delivery to colon. 5-Amino salicylic acid (5-ASA or mesalamine) was selected as a model drug. The developed nanoparticulate formulations were characterized for with respect to shape and surface morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release and release kinetics. The particle size and zeta potential of formulations were determined by Malvern zetasizer. Shape and surface morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The average particle size and zeta potential of the F5 formulation (containing 5:5 ratio of triglyceryl monostearate and stearic acid and 0.4%w/v sodium alginate) were found to be 217±6 and -30.7±5 mV respectively. The maximum percentage entrapment efficiency was reported with F5 formulation i.e. 72.71%. The in vitro drug release from advanced formulations was examined using a USP dissolution type-1apparatus in different media for different periods of time. 90±3.7% drug release was recorded with uncoated mesalamine nanoparticles in phosphate buffer solution pH 6.8, whereas coated nanoparticles displayed 87±4.0% and 76±4.2% release after 24 hours in rat cecal media and in human cecal media, respectively. The developed polysaccharide based nanoparticles would be a potential candidate for colon specific drug delivery of wide variety of drugs in various disease conditions.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

8. A Multicenter Surveillance and Reporting of Antimicrobial Resistance: Focus on Ceftriaxone-Resistant Escherichia coli in the Year 2012 and 2013
Pratiwi Wikaningtyas, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Debbie S Retnoningrum, Ida Parwati
Abstract
Introduction: Bacterial resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing and developed countries. Resistance to more potent antimicrobial agents has also emerged. The present study aims to report information concerning Escherichia coli resistance to ceftriaxone from clinical specimens from three hospitals in Bandung, Indonesia. Method: A total of 234 specimens in 2012 and 601 specimens in 2013 were collected from all three hospitals. The results were processed to obtain the profile prevalence ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli and the distribution on infected specimens. Result: Increasing number of ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli were observed in two hospitals, hospital A from 35.38% to 43.02% and hospital C from 43.9% to 52.6%. The source of clinical specimen of E. coli resistant to ceftriaxone was varied in all hospital. In hospital A, pus and faeces were the predominant infected specimens. Meanwhile in hospital B, sputum was the predominant infected specimen, and in hospital C urine was the most common specimen infected by ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli. Conclusion: The high and increasing rate of ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli indicate that it is imperative to rationalize the use of antimicrobials in hospitals, use them prudently and also mandate our attention, and periodic monitoring of the trend of the resistance is crucial. A team-based approach to patient care is needed between pharmacist and prescriber to combat antibiotic resistance.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

9. Platelet Reactivity of Aspirin and Clopidogrel in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with or Without Diabetes Mellitus
Suharjono, Wahyudi E D,  Yunita A, Yogiarto M, Zulkarnain B S
Abstract
Background: Antiplatelet combination Aspirin (ASA) and Clopidogrel (CPG) has  become part of therapeutic standard in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).  Thus, a decline in antiplatelet response due to platelet functional problem may be occured among CAD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective: To evaluate ASA platelet reactivity (Aspirin Reactivity Unit=ARU) and CPG (Platelet Reactivity Unit=PRU) among CAD patients with vs without DM who take a combination therapy of ASA 100 mg and CPG 75 mg/day. Methods: The study was done at Cardiology Outpatient Clinic – Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital Surabaya. A cross sectional observational study was carried out and an unpair qualitative analysis study was used to interprete the data. Platelet functional test was performed by VerifyNow, which was very specific for ASA (Aspirin Reactivity Unit = ARU) and CPG (Platelet Reactivity Unit = PRU). Results: A total of 20 patients were included in the study with the proportion of 10 CAD patients with DM and 10 CAD patients without DM. For ARU, about 4 CAD patients (40%) with DM and 3 CAD patients (30%) without DM seemed to have a resistance on ASA (p=1.000).  For PRU, there were High On-Treatment Platelet Reactivity (HPR) on CAD patients with DM compared to CAD patients without DM (77.8% vs 11.1%; p = 0.015).  Conclusion: Eventhough the number of CAD patient with DM who showed resistance to ASA was slightly higher compared to CAD patient without DM, there was no statistical difference between two groups. But for CPG, there were very significant higher HPR on CAD patient with DM than without DM.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

10. Dietary Fiber of Glycine max (L.) Merr Compound as Antihypercholesterolemia to MDA Levels and Hepar Histopatology on Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Dwi Kartika Risfianty, Chanif Mahdi, Dyah Kinasih Wuragil, Aulanni’Am Aulanni’Am
Abstract
Black soybean’s (Glycine max (L.) Merr) is a tropical plant and spread widely in Southeast Asia including Indonesia. It contains of black soybean’s are rich in fiber but has not been widely used for the treatment of cholesterol. This paper discusses recent investigation on the benefits of dietary fiber black soybean’s decrease the MDA levels on high cholesterol diet induced rats. Twenty wistar male rats (Rattus norvegicus) divided into 4 groups. The first group was negative control. The second group was hypercholesterolemic rats induced with hyprcholesterolemic diet consisted of 10% lard, cholic acid, and a quail egg yolk which has been heated (100°C) mixed with corn oil to 2 ml as well as standard feed for 2 weeks. The third and fourth groups of rats were therapied with dietary fiber of black soybean dose of 0.72g/kgWB and 1.44g/kgWB, respectively. The result showed dietary fiber theraphy decreasing of MDA levels of hypercholesterolemic rats to be 38.198% and 48.922% at dose of 0.72g/kgWB and 1.44g/kgWB, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that each treatment group were significantly different (p<0.05). It also could repair hepar tissue which showed by decreasing of fat accumulation on hepatocyte. The conclusion from this study was dietary fiber of black soybean had potentialy as an alternative treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016

11. Preparation of Silver Nano Particles Using Aqueous Solution of Ocimum sanctum and Piper betle and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity Against Enterococcus faecalis
Sambandam Cecilia, Divyarani S, Kirubasankar Lakshya, Charumathy R, Kannan I, Chitraa R Chandran
Abstract
Enterococcus faecalis is commonly found in a high percentage of root canal failures and it is able to survive in the root canal as a single organism. Silver nano particles (AgNPs) are nano particles of silver between 1 nm to 100nm and are known to have excellent antimicrobial properties thus used as disinfectants. An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the antibacterial activity of AgNPs prepared by the aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum (Thulasi) and Piper betle (betel leaf) against E. faecalis. 9ml of 5mM Silver nitrate was added to 1ml of aqueous extract of plants and incubated at 37oC for 24 hrs. The change in colour from yellow to brown indicates the production of Silver nano particles. UV–Vis spectral analysis was done by UV–visible spectrophotometer. UV–Visible absorption between 200 and 800 nm was used. The antibacterial study was done by well diffusion method. The silver nano particles were successfully synthesised from the aqueous extracts of O. sanctum (Thulasi) and P. betle (betel) leaves). The formation of AgNPs was indicated by the peak absorption between 410-450nm in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The present study showed that the AgNPs prepared from the two plant extracts have anti-bacterial activity against E. faecalis. From the present study it has been concluded that the green synthesized AgNPs has antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and hence can be used for endodontic treatment.

Abstract Online: 12- July, 2016