Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal

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1. Natural Fungal Compounds as 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 2C Inhibitors: A Homology Modeling and Docking Study
Sowmya Suri, Bindu Chowhan
The present study explains computational methods to design 3D structure of “5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C of Homo sapiens. Modeling study was performed to generate a 3D model for 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C protein. The model was developed by using Modeler9.18 software. The developed model showed 92.5% of the amino acids in most favored region. The developed model was further docked with 14 natural fungal compounds by using AUTODOCK4.2 software to identify the functional effect of protein. All the compounds exhibited good binding energy and interactions. These studies provide understanding and interpreting the data produced by these methods.

2. Building Audit Compliant Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Environment by the Aid of the Industrial Internet of Things (Iiot)
Sripad H S, Gangadharappa H V, Gowrav M P, Amit B Patil
The updated version of automation and connectivity through the internet is known as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)This has been for many decades in the plant environment as a machine to machine communication without the advancement and connectivity.  Pharmaceutical manufacturing has seen many changes in which automation is one, IIoT is nothing but automation of the entire plants situated at different places by the internet as the choice of network. Real-time auditing, by IIoT analyzing and interpreting the large data, can be made easier. IIOT acts as a tool for an industrial organization to improve connectivity, scalability, efficiency. along with these IIoT also saves time and money for organizations. SCADA, HMI, PLCs, RTUs, and network play important role in IIoT. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a system of software and hardware elements that allows industrial organizations to Control industrial processes locally or at remote locations. SCADA acts as a vehicle that communicates with the operator and operation by carrying the information from the field level i.e., valves, motors, sensors and human-machine interface (HMI). It has both software and hardware elements which helps the operator to control the operation from the remote locations. the software is built to log and record the events which are performed through it by this SCADA helps the organization to make smarter decisions, communicate system issues to help mitigate downtime. PLC, RTU. HMI, sensors act as a supporting system. Automation in manufacturing can be divided into field level, automation level, and management incorporation of IBCs with automation, manufacturing could see a different perspective in terms of analyzing the data and make important decisions. It also makes process and system more compliant to audits.

3. Cardio Metabolic Risk Factors Among Different Ethnic Women from Tripura, A North Eastern State of India: Relationship with Socio Demographic Patterns
Purnajita Sen, Dipayan Choudhuri
Introduction: This cross-sectional study assessed the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD)  in Tripuri and Riang women from Tripura and explored the associations between these factors with socio demographic status. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist height ratio and waist  hip ratio, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) were recorded. Cardio metabolic risk of the subject was evaluated according to consensus statement for Asian Indians. A  socio demographic assessment  was computed based on physical activity, education, main occupation and income. The association between socio- demographic pattern and cardio metabolic risk was determined by logistic regression models. Results: By applying 95% confidence interval in logistic regression models in both Tripuri and Riang women it has been found that urbanity, sedentary  working , high education and high income groups are susceptible to cardio metabolic  risk.  Increased fasting blood glucose, elevated blood pressures, and high triglycerides and low HDL-C were observed in subjects having profound cardio metabolic risk. In both the groups the risk increased steadily with advancement of age. Conclusion: Our study show that cardio-metabolic risk factors in both the groups of indigenous population from Tripura are  associated with  various socio demographic  factors. Lifestyle  interventions with  emphasis on physical activity  appear appropriate to reduce the burden of cardio metabolic risk in studied population.

4. Pharmaceutical Product Recall in USA and EU: Comparative analysis
Bigoniya Dharmesh, M P Venkatesh, T M Pramod Kumar
Counterfeit/ falsified medicines contain low quality ingredients, wrong dose, may be deliberately mislabelled or have fake packaging or ingredients. According to the WHO, the prevalence of spurious, falsely-labelled, falsified or counterfeit medicines is a growing trend worldwide. Drug recalls are conducted for critically defective products that pose health risks to patients; either voluntarily by manufacturers or by mandate of regulatory authorities. US-FDA and EU-EMA control and implement the process of drug product recalls with their legal provisions in CFR and directives respectively. The regulatory provisions adopted for drug recall was investigated i.e., recall notification, type, classification, health hazard assessment, strategy, rapid alert system, evaluation system and termination. Recall guidelines are well developed in both countries, with a well-defined peer recall classification, health hazard assessment system and public warning methods. In both the countries, recall is classified as Class I, II and III but strategy in US-FDA is well defined with detailed procedure unlike in EU. USA follows timeline based product recall and termination by proper notification of proper implementation of corrective and preventive action; however, the recall timeline and termination process is not defined in EU. Comparative assessment of drug recall data for USA and EU showed that numbers of recalls are much higher in USA compared to EU.

5. Effectiveness of Self Worth Therapy on Self Esteem Among Elderlyin Selected Old Age Homes, Kancheepuram Districts
J Selva Mary Devakani, A Akila Devi, R Vijayalakshmi
Statement of the problem: “A study to assess the effectiveness of self worth therapy on self esteem among elderly in selected old age homes, Kancheepuram District”. Introduction: Self esteem, self acceptance and a sense of self-worth are vital to feeling happy. When we lose the sense that we are worthy or loveable, it is easy to become depressed in turn leads to low self esteem. Through self worth Therapy, people who have issues around their self-worth can learn to view themselves more realistically. They can learn how to recognize, appreciate, and value their assets and strengths, and thereby affirm and strengthen their self-perceived value as worthwhile human beings. Objectives: 1.To determine the effectiveness of self worth therapy on self esteem among elderly in study group. 2. To associate the post test level of self esteem among elderly in study and control group with their selected demographic variables. Methods: The quantitative approach and quasi experimental-Pre test-post test control group design was used for this study. The study was conducted with 62 samples of elderly with inadequate self esteem using purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted at selected old age homes, Kancheepuram District. The data was analyzed and interpreted based on the objectives using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Self worth therapy was found to be effective in increasing the level of self esteem. There is no association between post-test level of depression among elderly with their demographic, personal and clinical variables in study and control group. Conclusion: self worth therapy was highly effective in improving self esteem of elderly persons those who were in selected old age homes, Kancheepuram District.

6. Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis in Infected Tomato with the Help of Immunoinformatics Technique
Basu A, Sarkar A, Basak P
Objective: Clavibacter michiganensis is an aerobic non-sporulating gram-positive plant pathogenic actinomycete that currently founds the only species within the genus Clavibacter. This microorganism causes considerable economic losses worldwide by detrimental effect on tomatoes and potatoes. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is the causative agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) The causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato survives in or on seeds for up to 8 months. This is also found in microbial populations commonly found on the teat skin of dairy cows. Clavibacter must be omitted from the farming environment by proper detection procedures in plant seeds for shake of human beings. An expansin protein present in Clavibacter michiganensis (PDB ID 4JJO) is a predicted antigen for human being. This study therefore aims to detect specific B cell as well T cell epitopes present in antigenic protein as immunodiagnotic tool against this pathogen. Materials and Methods: By analyzing the crystal structure of this antigen, we can predict linear and non-linear epitopes present on the antigen using Bepipred and ABCpred server. Several characteristics e.g. surface accessibility, hydrophilicity, flexibility and beta-turn of the predicted epitopes are calculated. T cell epitopes are primarily selected by using NetCTLv1.2 server. By this process interacting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) super types are identified for predicted T cell epitopes. Conclusion: The epitope which interacts with the highest numbers of MHC class I and class II molecules is chosen as the best epitope candidate for this antigen protein. This immunoinformatics study will help us to reduce, cost and labour for developing a monoclonal antibody against the antigenic protein of Clavibacter michiganensis.

7. Effect of Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell. against Ethanol Induced Oxidative Damage in Hepg2 Cells
Praneetha Pallerla, Swarooparani Vanapatla, Narsimha reddy Yellu, Ravi kumar Bobbala
Objective: The study was aimed to assess the in-vitro hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of whole plant of Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell. (LCME) of family Scrophulariaceae against ethanol induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell lines. Methods: The cytotoxicity study was conducted for the extract, LCME using MTT assay to determine the CTC 50 value. Based on the doses 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml were selected for the hepatoprotective study in HepG2 cell lines. The toxicity was induced by using ethanol (100mM). The in-vitro hepatoprotective activity of the extract was assessed based on the changes in the level of biochemical parameters such as Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Results: The extract, LCME has shown a significant cytoprotective activity with maximum protection and percentage cell viability (69.36%) at 100µg/mL. Conclusion: The study revealed that the extract, LCME has significant in-vitro hepatoprotective activity against ethanol induced cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cell lines.

8. Clinical Trial on Thetreatment of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Through the Oral Administration of Siddha Herbal Formulation Swasakasathirku churnam
Revathi G, Rajalakshmi P, Vadivel V
Background: In Siddha medical texts, respiratory diseases are explained in the name of Swasa noikal. Objectives: In respiratory disease has been described to have symptoms close to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is called as swasa kasam in Tamil. In this case study, we have recorded the effect of herbal medicine Swasakasathirku churnam (SKC) on the COPD patients. This case study was carried out in Post-Graduate Department of Pothumaruthuvam, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. Material and Methods: Twenty patients were admitted as in-patients (12 male and 8 female, age group 21-60 years old) based on the severity of COPD and 20 out patients (12 male and 8 female, age group 12-60 years old) are treated with SKC. Patients of COPD selected on the basis of fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. The trial patients were given SKC (dose of 1 g with honey) twice a day after meals for 40 days. Improvement of patients health was evaluated by pulmonary function test using Spirometry and blood chemistry parameters. Results: Treatment with SKC administration was found to be effective among COPD patients by regulating their respiratory rate to normal level. Further, analysis of blood profile before and after treatment with SKC indicated the safety of the herbal drug SKC. Moreover, studies on mechanism of action revealed that the Siddha formulation SKC might exhibits therapeutic effect through their anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmatic, anti-histamine and anti-microbial properties. Conclusions: Hence, Siddha formulation SKC could be explored as an effective herbal drug for COPD without any side effects.