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Volume3,Issue2

Volume 3, Issue 2, April – June 2011[/su_heading]

1. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Property of Tinospora cordifolia.
Javeed Ahmed Wani, Rajeshwara N. Achur, R. K. Nema
Abstract
Tinospora cordifolia is an herbaceous vine of the family Menispermaceae. This plant is indigenous to the tropical areas and distributed throughout India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Traditionally, the plant is being used for the treatment of various diseases but a systematic study is lacking. Further, there are some preliminary reports about using the stems of this plant for treating sexual disorders. To pursue this further, in this study, the total extracts were tested for their constituents and tested for aphrodisiac activity in experimental rats. The preliminary phytochemical screening of hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, proteins, saponins, gums and mucilages. The hydroalcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem at higher concentration (400 mg/kg body weight) showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male wistar albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. On the other hand, hydroalcoholic extract at lower dose (200 mg/kg body weight) and aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) showed moderate aphrodisiac property. Thus, in experimental rats, the results of the present study suggest that the extracts of Tinospora cordifolia exert significant aphrodisiac activity. Further, detailed studies are needed to know whether in vivo administration of the extracts is beneficial for patients suffering from sexual disorders.
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2. Phytochemical Screening and Estimation of Total Phenolic Content in Aegle marmelos Seeds.
Ganesh N. Sharma, Susheel K. Dubey, Nitin Sati, Jyotsana Sanadya
Abstract
The aim of present study was to investigate the phyto-constituents present within the aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos seeds and to estimate the total phenolic contents. The amount of total phenols, were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Folin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg / g gallic acid equivalents (Standard curve equation: y= 0.0106x + 0.041, R2 = 0.996). The total phenols varied from 27.12 ± 0.6 to 65.20 ± 0.2 in extracts. The maximum phenolic content was found in the methanolic extract (65.20 ± 0.2 mg/g).

3. Kaempferol-7-O-Glucoside and their Antimicrobial Screening isolate from Cassia renigera Wall.
D. Singh, S. K. Sharma, Rachana Rani, Sudeep Mishra, R. A. Sharma
Abstract
Cassia species have been of keen interest in phytochemical and pharmacological research due to their excellent medicinal values. Different classes of natural products, possessing potent physiological and pharmacological activities have been isolated from Cassia renigera. They include anthracene derivatives, flavonoids and polysaccharides. Some of these compounds have been shown to possess considerable antimicrobial activity. The present study deals with the isolation, purification of flavonoids in different parts of C. renigera and their antimicrobial activity. A new flavonoid kaempferol-7- O-glucoside was identified and characterized and it showed significant antimicrobial activities. The higher level of total flavonoids was measured in flowers of C. renigera (1.15 mg/gdw) and, Similarly higher levels of total qurecetin (F+B) were measured in flowers of C. renigera (0.34 mg/gdw). Higher levels of total kaempferol (F+B) were measured in flowers of C. renigera (0.60 mg/gdw). Similarly higher levels of kaempferol-7-O-glucoside were measured in flowers of C. renigera (0.21 mg/gdw). The isolated flavonoids were effective against all test bacteria and fungi but the quercetin was found more effective against Escherichia coli, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliformae and Rhizoctonia bataticola, therefore the MIC value 2×103 mg/disc was recorded and MIC value for other bacteria and fungi was recorded as 3×103 mg/disc. Kaempferol was more effective against A. flavus, A. niger, F. moniliformae and R. bataticola, therefore the MIC value 2×103 mg/disc was recorded. MIC value for kaempferol-7-O-glucoside (a new flavonoid) was 2×103 mg/disc for E. coli, A. flavus and A. niger but MIC value for S. aureus, P. aeurinosa and S. typhi was recorded 3×103 mg/disc.

4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Enicostemma littorale in Alcohol Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats.
Barani Srinivasan. P., Sreenivasan. R. S.
Abstract
The aqueous extract obtained from the leaves of Enicostemma littorale Blume (Gentianaceae) was investigated for antioxidant effect on ethanol induced oxidative stress in male albino rats. The decreased activity level of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the liver tissue of ethanol fed rat recorded elevated activity levels after the administration of leaf extract. The inhibition of lipid peroxide production in the treated animals showed an improved antioxidant status.

5. Study of Background of Patients Suffering From Diabetes Mellitus with Special Reference to Muzaffarpur Town.
Sangeeta Rani, Asha Rani, Rajesh Kumar Nema
Abstract
Diabetes is a challenging health problem. It has become the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in many developed and developing countries of the world, The world wide data show that 5.35 million people live with TypeI diabetes and 0.395 million (7.4%) are children. The annual incidence turns out to be the highest in India throughout the world. According to WHO estimation; India will have over 57 million diabetic patients by 2025. Viewing this alarming rate of diabetes all over India, Muzaffarpur has been selected as the locale of study. The present study focused on the background profile & prevalence rate of Diabetes in selected area of Muzaffaprur town. Random sampling method was used to select the Diabetic patients. This is an evident proof to show that obesity is directly linked with diabetes and such people are at greater risk of having CHD. Genetic factors have been found responsible for causing diabetes among 63% of the respondents.

6. Evaluation of Antifertility activity from Stem Part of Ocimum gratissimum in Acetone extracts.
S. Sripriya, G. Yuvaraj, R. K. Nema, V. Madhan kumar, M. Deecaraman
Abstract
Acetone extract of Stem of Ocimum gratissimum was screened for the antifertility activity in proven fertile female albino rats at the doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg b.wt./day. Oral administration of the extract to mated female rats on days 1-5 of pregnancy resulted in a decline in the fertility index, numbers of uterine implants and live fetuses in a dose dependent manner as was confirmed by laparotomy on day 15 of pregnancy. The extract (100 mg/kg b.wt.) exhibited weak estrogenic activity when given alone and tested in immature bilaterally ovariectomized female albino rats, but exhibited slight antiestrogenic activity when administration along with estradiol valerate (0.1 mg/kg b.wt.). Blood sugar and haematological parameters were within normal range. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that the acetoneextract of Ocimum gratissimum stem possesses pregnancy terminating effect by virtue of anti-implantation activity.

7. Pantoprazole and Its Enteric Coating Polymer Concentration for Stable Coating in Acid Media in Stomach.
Chanchal Kumar Mishra, Anil Goyal, Mukesh Sahu, Asha Rani, D. Sasmal, Rajesh Kumar Nema
Abstract
Pantoprazole and its enteric coating polymer concentration for stable coating in acid media which is an orally administered benzimidazole anti-ulcer drugs. To achieve this goal, various prototype trials were taken and evaluated with respect to the various quality parameters such as disintegration, tablet weight, thickness; diameter, gastric resistance test, drug uniformity and dissolution also determine optimum polymer concentration for enteric coating. Pantoprazole enteric coated tablets prepared by direct compression. Because of its unstability in acidic environment decided to give it alkaline environment with the help of alkaliser and also protective seal coating between core tablet and acid resistant enteric coat. The primary aim of using delayed release is to protect the drug from an unfavourable environment in the gastrointestinal tract, to protect the gastrointestinal tract from high, local concentrations of an irritating drug compound, or to target a specific region of absorption or action. Delayed release products are typically enteric coated or colon targeted system. Formulation can be evaluated by Acid resistant test and In vitro drug release test. Delayed release dosage form has an enteric polymeric coating with characteristic pH-dependant solubility (or stability) to prevent release of the active ingredient in the stomach at low acidic pH (i.e. 1-3). Once the delayed release product leaves the stomach, the enteric coating dissolves subsequent in-vivo drugs release and then generally follow the same course as for an immediate release product. Applied different parameters of enteric coated tablets evaluation and IR spectral analysis of Pantoprazole that justified the enteric coating polymer concentration for stable coating in acid media in stomach.