Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal


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Volume3,Issue3

Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2011 – September 2011[/su_heading]

1. The Risk Factor: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
James Smerq, Mukta Sharma
Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a tumor arising from the epithelial cells that cover the surface and line the Nasopharynx. Although NPC is a rare malignancy in the world, it is endemic in a few well-defined populations. In 2002, ∼80,000 incident cases of nasopharyngeal cancer were diagnosed worldwide and the estimated number of deaths exceeded 50,000 and recorded as the 23rd most common new cancer in the world. Well-established risk factors for NPC include elevated antibody titers against the Epstein-Barr virus, consumption of salt-preserved fish, a family history of NPC and certain human leukocyte antigen class I genotypes. Consumption of other preserved foods, tobacco smoking and a history of chronic respiratory tract conditions may be associated with elevated NPC risk however, consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and other human leukocyte antigen genotypes may be associated with decreased risk. Evidence for a causal role of various inhalants, herbal medicines and occupational exposures is inconsistent. Other than dietary modification, there are no concrete preventive measures for NPC exist. Unresolved gaps given in understanding of NPC, there is a clear need for large-scale, population-based molecular epidemiologic studies to elucidate how environmental, viral, and genetic factors interact in both the development and the prevention of this disease.
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2. Antidepressant Activity of Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitor: Cilostazol
Bhatt P.A., Patel D.S., Anand I.S., Shah U.G., Patel S.B.
Abstract
The aim of present study was to evaluate change in depressive symptoms from baseline to 1month follow up assessment through Montgomery – Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) in cardiovascular disease patients undergoing cilostazol therapy. Impairments in signal transduction have been implicated as possible mechanism of reduced plasticity and neuronal survival in major depressive disorders. PDE inhibitors possess a potentially powerful means to manipulate secondary messengers involved in learning, memory and mood. Cilostazol has been found to show improvement of cognitive function, prevention of cerebral ischemia, amelioration of neuronal damage and neuroprotection in animal studies. Thus PDE3 inhibitor, Cilostazol is evaluated for antidepressant activity. The study is Prospective, Single centric, open labeled, non-randomized carried out on 22 subjects fulfilling inclusion/exclusion criteria and having mild to moderate depression for at least 2 weeks prior to assessment through Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Subjects were selected to undergo Cilostazol (50 mg BD) therapy for 1 month duration. Follow up of the subject was carried out by MADRS after 1 month through telephonic conversation. The change from baseline to follow up score for MADRS was statistically significant. MADRS response rate at the end of one month cilostazol therapy has shown reduction in MADRS total score of > 50% relative to baseline in all 22 patients. There was complete remission rate with MADRS score of < 8 in all 22 patients at the end of treatment phase as compared to baseline. In conclusion, Cilostazol possesses antidepressant effect as evidenced through decrease in MADRS scoring as compared to baseline ratings. Thus, Cilostazol could be a drug of choice in cardiovascular patients who underwent angioplasty and on adjuvant dual antiplatelet therapy for treatment of mild to moderate depression.

3. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Nymphaea alba Linn on Urolithiatic Rats
ShelkeT.T, Bhaskar V H, Jha U, Adkar PP, Oswal RJ
Abstract
The urolithiasis was induced by inserting zinc disc (a foreign body) in the urinary bladder. This was also followed by supplementing 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water. The reduction in weight of the stones was used as criteria for assessing the preventive or curative regimen. In the present study, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Nymphaea alba Linn was administered orally. This was evaluated for its antiurolithiatic potential in albino rats of Wistar strains. It was studied by administrating two different doses of the plant for prophylactic and curative groups. Oral administration of the Nymphaea alba Linn has resulted in significant reduction in the weight of bladder stones compared to the control group.

4. Formulation and Optimization of Megaloporous Matrix Tablet Containing Losartan Potassium
Patel Amrit Lal, Gautam Surya Prakash, Sudhakar C.K., Jain Sanjay
Abstract
potassium to give an initial immediate effect followed by sustained release for 12 h from the matrix embedded tablets at a constant rate. These Megaloporous matrix tablets were prepared with two kinds of granules, insoluble restraining-phase matrix granule (RMG) which controls the release rate of the drug and soluble housing-phase matrix granule (HMG) which controls liquid penetration into the system and leaching out of drug immediately. Eudragit RS 100 as release retardant and Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) as superdisintegrant were used to constitute the RMG and HMG, respectively. The RMG and HMG granules were prepared by wet and dry granulation respectively and mixture of both granules compressed as a tablet. The Megaloporous matrix tablets were characterized by friability, hardness, Swelling index Drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release were performed by USP apparatus type II. The optimization of the tablets were done on the basis of the concentration of Eudragit RS 100 in the RMG, SSG and Carbopol in the HMG and it was found that the drug release rate decreased with increasing of the concentration of the Eudragit RS 100 and drug release rate increased with increasing of the concentration of the SSG in RMG and HMG phases, respectively. The release kinetic of the formulations was evaluated by using different release kinetic models and it was seen that the target profile was nearly achieved. This study suggests using Megaloporous tablets in therapy, which could be prepared with a simple and cheap way similarly to conventional tablets to obtain an immediate and constant drug release which mimic Bilayer tablet.

5. Evaluation of Donepezil Hydrochloride Using Various Physical Parameters
Sunil Dutt, S. L. Khokra, Hitesh Kumar, Deepak Prashar
Abstract
Donepezil Hydrochloride was evaluated for its physical properties including interference study, acid /base degradation and oxidation degradation. On comparison basis these parameters were studied using different (5mg and 10mg) drug dose. Reverse Phased HPLC technique was used to evaluate the various physical parameters.

6. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Sesamum indicum Linn. Seed Extract against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Kumar Munish, Sisodia SS, Kamboj Anjoo, Rathi Vaibhav
Abstract
The present study was aimed to assess the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum Linn. seeds against Paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Paracetamol-induced liver damage was produced by the treatment of Paracetamol (2g/kg/day, p.o) on three consecutive days for seven days. Other groups of rats were pretreated with two doses of Sesamum indicum (400mg/kg and 700mg/kg) and silymarin (25mg/kg, bw, p.o.) 30 min prior to Paracetamol ingestion. Liver damage was assessed using various biochemical parameters viz. Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyurvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acid phosphatase (ACP), Total Protein, Albumin and Total Bilirubin along with histopathological examination of liver tissue. There was a significant increase in serum enzymatic levels of Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyurvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Total Bilirubin with a decrease in Total Protein and Albumin level, in Paracetamol treated animals, reflecting liver injury. Pretreatment with two different doses (400mg/kg and 700mg/kg) of Sesamum indicum produced significant reversal in the above biochemical parameters and reduced histopathological scores of fatty degeneration, centrilobular necrosis with significant evidence of regeneration. The results of the study indicate that the extract of Sesamum indicum possesses significant protection against Paracetamolinduced hepatocellular injury.