Monthly Publishing Peer Reviewed Journal

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1. Indonesian Propolis Extractattenuates Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Induced Renal Damage by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Blood Pressure
Susanto A, Purwanto B, Mudigdo A, Suroto
Ureteral obstruction may result in permanent kidney damage. Research suggests that the Indonesian Propolis Extract (IPE) play a strong role on free oxygen radicals removal and prevents oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of IPE on malondialdehyde (MDA) reduction and systolic blood pressure (SBP) level down-regulationafter unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).A total of 32 rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 as control, Group 2 were rats with UUO, Group 3 were rats with UUO that were given IPE (oral 50  mg kg-1body weight) and Group 4 were rats with UUO that were given IPE (oral 100  mgkg-1 body weight). SBP level were measured once every week within duration of experiment and at day30 blood sample were taken for Malondialdehyde analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance. There were statistically significant increase in MDA and blood pressure in Group 2, while there were significant decrease for MDA and blood pressure in Group 3 and 4 (p< 0.001). In this experiment we suggest that IPE prevents kidney damage by decreasing oxidative stress (MDA) and SBP.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8770

2. Diabetic Risk Score and Fasting Plasma Glucose Testing in the Screening for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk
Techit Thavorasak, Paphanin Kamkaen, Araya Rattanasri, Surapon Tangvarasittichai
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disorder and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Early recognition and intervention will be helpful in reducing the personal and financial cost of the disease. We used the diabetic risk score (DRS) and fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT) for identification the risk of T2DM. A total of 142 female participants were randomly participated in the present study. These participants were identified as 39 (27.5%) high risk (Gr-III) and 71 (50%) very high risk (Gr-IV) for T2DM groups according to the DRS. In addition with 13 (9.2%) and 2 (1.4%) were newly diagnosed as having HT and T2DM. Both HT and T2DM participants were older than the normal participants. BMI and WC were not significantly different in the comparison of T2DM with Non-T2DM and HT with Non-HT patients.  The DRS would be practical to use as tool for T2DM risk screening while FPGT was used to identify impaired fasting glucose and T2DM onset. Then, we recommended FPGT for the individuals with high and very high DRS groups.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8771

3. Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Essential Oil from Myrtus communis
Zenebe Hagos, Afework Mulugeta, Gopalakrishnan V K, Krishna Chaithanya K, Nagaraju B
Objective: The objective of the study was to extract the essential oil and to determine the physicochemical properties, chemical composition of the essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves by using GC-MS. Methods: 500 g of the powdered material (dried leaves) was subjected to hydro-distillation using Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours and the essential oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. The physicochemical properties essential oil such as solubility, density, specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation, specific rotation, acid value, saponification value and ester value were determined, which are used to determine the quality of essential oils extracted from plant leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Myrtus communis leaves was analysed using GC-MS. Results: The yield of essential oil of Myrtus communis leaves was 0.463 ± 0.001 g/100 gram of dry sample which is 0.463 ± 0.001 % (w/w) with pale yellow colour and pleasant odour. The essential oil of Myrtus communis leaves was slightly soluble in water and ethanol while it was soluble in chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. The essential oil was subjected to GC-MS analyses, twenty eight components representing 99.949 % of the total oil composition. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the extraction of essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves and GC-MS analysis, the essential oil of this plant  have a potential of secondary metabolites which can be exploited as a good source of bioactive substances.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8772

4. Determination of Sensitivity and Specificity of Cardio-Goniometry in Detection of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Osteoporosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Farzaneh Ahmadi, Seyed Masoud Seyedian, Bita Abdipour, Elham Rajaee, Mehrdad Dargahi-MalAmir
Background: This study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cardio-goniometry (CGM ) in detection of coronary artery disease in patients with osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis that have symptoms of chest pain through angiography or radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Study Methods and design:100 patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, according to WHO criteria suspected to have ischemic heart disease enrolled in study. The patients were studied by cardio-goniometry and then the results were compared with angiography or MPI of the same patient (selected as standard diagnosis method). then sensitivity and specificity of cardio-goniometry were calculated. Results: 71 patients underwent to angiography and in 29 patients MPI was done. In first a group 42 patients had Coronary artery disease (CAD). In MPI group 18 patients had CAD in CGM.Seventy-one of these patients underwent angiography for diagnose of ischemic heart disease .29 of them diagnosed as healthy. Of the 100 patients, 29 patients were evaluated previously using MPI to determine ischemic heart disease .11 patients diagnosed as healthy. All 100 patients were examined by cardio-goniometry among which 47 subjects were healthy and the rest subjects had significant and non-significant ischemia. Statistical analyses didn’t show significant difference between the results of cardio-goniometry with angiography and myocardial perfusion (p Value >0/05). the results showed the sensitivity and specificity of cardio-goniometry compared rather than angiography and cardiac scan was equal to 0/86 and 0/63. Conclusion: CGM can be suitable for screening of ischemic heart disease in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis (who cannot do exercise test).

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8773

5. The Correlation of Fc-gamma Receptor I (CD64) Expression and Procalcitonin in Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis
Zenia Angelina, Eko Sulistijono, Loeki Enggar Fitri
Objective: The aim of this study is to prove the relationship of FcγRI (CD64) expression and Procalcitonin value in early-onset neonatal sepsis to assist in diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Method: A descriptive and analytical case control study was conducted in dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang. There were 40 children divided into two groups: 1). Group of infants with neonatal risk factors who express signs of SIRS and proven by blood culture; 2). Group of infants with neonatal risk factors who showed no sign for SIRS. Both groups were performed examination of FcγRI (CD64) expression with flowcytometry and Procalcitonin value with ELISA. Data were statistically analyzed using normality test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov), chi square test, t test and Pearson correlation. We used SPSS 16 for this analysis.  Results: The study showed that the FcγRI (CD64) expression and Procalcitonin value were higher in the infants group with proven early-onset neonatal sepsis (p <0.05). There was a significant relationship between FcγRI (CD64) expression and the Procalcitonin value (p=0.036). Conclusions: We conclude that expression of FcγRI (CD64) and Procalcitonin value were higher in the infants group with proven early-onset neonatal sepsis. There is a positive relationship between FcγRI (CD64) expression and Procalcitonin value in early onset neonatal sepsis.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8774

6. Formulation and Evaluation of Bilayered Tablets Containing Immediate Release Layer of Glimepiride Complexed with Mangifera indica Gum and Sustained Release Layer Containing Metformin HCL by Using HPMC as Release Retardant
Hemalatha S, Srikanth P, Mounica Sai G
In present investigation an attempt has been made to design and develop the Bilayered tablet of Glimepiride and Metformin using Mangifera Indica Gum (MIG) and HPMC as Immediate Release and Sustained Release Layer polymers. Glimepiride and Metformin are oral-hypoglycaemic drugs which lower blood glucose level and have been selected to prepare Bilayered tablets. Glimepiride immediate release layer was prepared using MIG by wet granulation technique and Metformin sustained release layer was prepared using HPMC by dry granulation technique. Prepared Bilayered tablets were evaluated for parameters like thickness, diameter, weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and in-vitro release studies. All the prepared tablets were of smooth surface and elegant texture. The weights of the tablets were in the range of 540±0.551 mg. The thicknesses of the tablet were in the range of 4±0.05mm. The drug content uniformity study showed uniform dispersion of drug throughout the formulation in the range of 97.16±0.50%. The hardness was in the range of 4.0±0.5 kg/cm2 and friability is in the range of 0.67±0.06%. The bilayered tablets were also subjected to model fitting analysis to know the order and mechanism of drug release from the formulation by treating the data according to zero-order, first-order, Higuchi and peppas equations.The bioequivalence studies conducted between prepared and marketed (Glycomate) bilayered tablet showed the similarity factor value of 70.120 for IR layer and 57.689 for SR layer.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8775

7. Self-Assembling Peptides- Notion and Medical Applications: A Review
Anoojnya Sharma, D V Gowda, N Vishal Kumar Gupta, Riyaz Ali M Osmani
Peptides are the building blocks which are widely used owing to their biology as well as their chemistry. They provide a vast platform in the area of medicine. Self-assembling peptides are peptide biomaterials which are pacing in the field of diagnosis, therapeutics, tissue regeneration and vaccine. Self-assembling peptides provide an excellent alternative to the conventional methods for the drug delivery and the treatment. In this article, we discuss about the various medical applications of self-assembling peptide as they have excellent biocompatibility and resemblance with the proteins in the biological system. These are constructed and modified using various amino acid sequences depending upon the type of the application for which it is being used.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8776

8. Antituberculosis Screening of Crude Extracts of M.Spicata(Dalz.) Nicolson
D G Karpe, S P Lawande
World Health Organization reports on Tuberculosis shows that TB is a big problem in the world. More than 23% cases of Tuberculosis found in India amongst global total. Plants are good sources of phytomedicines. Plants contain active constituents and are easily available in nature. The present study was done to evaluate In-vitro antituberculosis activity of crude extracts of m.spicata .We used Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC) method to evaluate the antituberculosis activity. Higher concentarations of crude extracts were needed to show antitubercular activity as compared with standard reference drug Isoniazid.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8777

9. Effects of Upper Limb Strengthening Exercises on Handwriting Speed in Undergraduate Students
P Kamalanathan, Shabreen Banu H
Back ground:- Handwriting is an essential tool required by students. It is a complex process which involves close coordination between musculoskeletal and nervous system.Objective:-To assess the effects of upper limb strengthening exercises on handwriting speed in undergraduate students Study design: – Experimental Design. Subjects: – Applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30subjects were Randomly selected and Group A (15 subjects) who underwent Strengthening exercises for upperlimb and GroupB (15 subjects) who underwent Writing Practice. Results: -Statistical analysis was done by using Paired‘t’ test in which Group A(p<.01) showed significant improvement in handwriting speed when compared with Group B. Conclusion: -Upper limb strengthening exercise programmes can be used to improve the hand writing speed.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8778

10. Homology Modeling of Mus Musculus CDK5 and Molecular Docking Studies with Flavonoids
Sowmya Suri, Rumana Waseem, Seshagiri Bandi, Sania Shaik
A 3D model of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) (Accession Number: Q543f6) is generated based on crystal structure of structure of P. falciparum PFPK5-indirubin-5-sulphonate ligand complex (PDB ID: 1V0O) at 2.30 Å resolution was used as template. Protein-ligand interaction studies were performed with flavonoids to explore structural features and binding mechanism of flavonoids as CDK5 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 5) inhibitors. The modelled structure was selected on the basis of least modeler objective function. The model was validated by PROCHECK. The predicted 3D model is reliable with 93.0% of amino acid residues in core region of the Ramachandran plot. Molecular docking studies with flavonoids viz., Diosmetin, Eriodictyol, Fortuneletin, Apigenin, Ayanin, Baicalein, Chrysoeriol and Chrysosplenol-D with modelled protein indicate that Diosmetin is the best inhibitor containing docking score of -8.23 kcal/mol. Cys83, Lys89, Asp84. The compound Diosmetin shows interactions with Cys83, Lys89, and Asp84.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8779