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1. Effectiveness of Education Based Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skill (IMB) Model of Improving Knowledge, Motivation, and Performance Demonstration Metered-Dose Inhaler (MDI) to Community Pharmacists in Surabaya
Amelia Lorensia, Benny Setiawan, Daniel Maranatha, Ananta Yudiarso
Preparations in the treatment of chronic asthma inhaler is more recommended dosage, but many asthma patients are not able to use an asthma inhaler properly. Dosage forms of inhaler types of metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is the most commonly used ayng. The role of community pharmacists are crucial in educating techniques use an asthma inhaler, but pharmacists can not use its own community and pharmacists current training methods based on knowledge has not been effective. In this study tested the theory-based educational methods IMB compared with conventional educational methods knowledge of the performance of community pharmacists in educating techniques use an asthma inhaler. A total of 25 community pharmacists participate in the research. All 25 pharmacists were then divided into two, the control group (n = 13). In comparison, the use of inhaler technique education based IMB improve the ability of community pharmacists inhaler demonstration is better than knowledge-based education, but there was no difference in the improvement of knowledge and motivation between the two. Although pharmacists who intervened with IMB-based educational models can demonstrate MDI use techniques better than knowledge-based education course.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8780

2. Interleukin Level 1 in Smokers GCF
R Nishanthi, Radhika Arjunkumar
Smoking is an environmental factor that places individuals at high risk for negative effects on the periodontal health However, the biological mechanisms behind these detrimental effects are still obscure. Periodontal diseases are considered to be initiated by bacteria that activate pathogenic processes leading to tissue destruction(1).Basically, the same subgingival microflora is observed in smoker and non-smoker patients with periodontal disease. Hence, the effects of smoking on periodontal health seem unrelated to the composition of the sub- gingival microflora(2). Cytokines such as interleukins -1, -6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) are considered to be involved in the host response of periodontal disease as mediators of tissue destruction.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8781

3. A Study to Determine the Effectiveness of Ergonomic Training on Body Posture and Musculoskeletal Disorder in Hospital Nurses
S Kavitha  M O T, Vinodhini C
The study aims in determining the effectiveness of ergonomic training on work- related musculoskeletal disorders and body posture among hospital nurses. Thirty hospital nurses were selected based on the selection criteria. Pre-test assessments were obtained using Cornell musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire, Visual analogue scale and Rapid upper limb assessment. The nurses were further split into experimental and control group with fifteen each. A comprehensive 8 week ergonomic training program was aided to the experimental group. Wilcoxon signed rank test was applied to determine the significance between the pre-test and the post-test values. P= 0.0001 (P <0.05 is considered significant). The frequency of the musculoskeletal pain has decreased with improved body posture. The study reveals the evidence for a need of a multicentre approach towards the treatment of work related musculoskeletal disorders. Study also illuminates the dynamic role of an occupational therapist in the field of ergonomics and intervening musculoskeletal disorders.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8782

4. Computational Study of Substituted 5[H] – Phenanthradin-6-Ones as Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Inhibitors by Analog and Structure Based Methods
Ravindrachary K, Ramesh M,  Parthasarathy T
The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear protein involved in DNA repair and programmed cell death. Substituted 5(H) phenanthradin-6-one analogs were found to be potent PARP-1 inhibitors. Semiempirical methods were used to estimate various physicochemical parameters. The hydration energy (HE), ionization potential (IP), electrophilic index (ω) and partition coefficient ( LogP ) were resulted as independent variables for inhibitory activity of the analogs. The overall increase of HE, IP, and EI and overall decrease of LogP enhance the efficacy of inhibitory nature of these analogs to PARP-1. Docking studies of 5(H) phenanthradin-6-one analogs with PARP-1 were also performed in support of the findings of QSAR studies. Analysis of results of both QSAR and docking studies suggested that remarkable inhibitory activity is exhibited by molecules 9b, 10b1 and 10b2. The hydrogen bond interactions along with hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are mapped to confirm their potencies.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8783

5. Synthesis of Novel Cinnoline Fused Mannich Bases: Pharmacological Evaluation of Antibacterial, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Kalyani G, Srinivas Bethi, Sastry K V, Vijaya Kuchana
In the present study, we have designed and synthesized a series of novel cinnoline fused Mannich bases by the condensation reaction of 4-methyl-3-acetyl cinnoline with different secondary aromatic and aliphatic amines with and the structures of compounds were characterized by H1-NMR, IR and Mass spectral analysis. The biological potentials of the newly synthesized compounds are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive), and Eeshricia coli (Gram negative) bacteria, in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 4 and 3, which are having larger hydrophobic amino substitutions resulted in relatively higher antibacterial against S. aureus and E. coli when compared to streptomycin. Similarly, compound 4 reported higher analgesic activity when compared to diclofenac at 120 mins and 180 mins. From anti-inflammatory evaluations, dose level of 50 mg/kg of test compounds reported significantly higher activity when compared to dose level of 20 mg/kg. Moreover, compound 4 (50 mg/kg) resulted in similar anti-inflammatory activity when compared with celecoxib (20 mg/kg).

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8784

6. Spectrophotometric Determination of Amprenavir by Complex Formation in Bulk Drug and Formulation Samples
T Padmini, L Satyanarayana
A validate rapid, economical and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of amprenavir in bulk drug and formulation samples. This method is validated for irinotecan with chromogenic reagent 3-methyl benzothiazolinone hydrazine (MBTH). The calibration curve was linear over Beer’s concentration range of 25-350 µg/ml. The relative standard deviation is less than 1% and average recovery is above 99.80%. Efficient visible spectrophotometric detection at the respective absorption maxima enabled determination with no interference from tablet excipients .The proposed method is fast, sensitive, precise, accurate and efficient and can be used for analysis in quality control laboratories.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8785

7. Colourants and Additives: Existing and Emerging Safety Concerns
Manish Kumar, M P Venkatesh, T M Pramod Kumar
Colour additives have long been used as a means of enhancing the aesthetic value of foods, beverages, and cosmetics and of identifying drugs and other products. Naturally occurring substances such as turmeric, paprika, saffron, and inorganic mineral pigments have been used for thousands of years. In the middle of the nineteenth century, synthetic organic dyes were developed, creating an economical and extensive array of color additives. Certified color additives are synthetic organic compounds. Most exempt colorants are derived from vegetable or mineral sources and are therefore often called “natural”; they can also be made synthetically, however it requires FDA to hold both types of color additives to the same safety standard. Colour additives exempt from certification (also known as ‘natural Colour additives’) are commonly used in the United States to colour foods, drugs and cosmetics. The US Food and Drug Administration established regulations governing the use of these colour additives, and the labelling of the products that contain them. The safety of these colour additives has been demonstrated by safety testing programs that have yielded a significant amount of toxicology data, and also by a long and well documented history of safe use in the United States and elsewhere. In this study the data supporting the safety of the colour additives that are exempt from certification and approved for use in the USA, and conclude that the safety of these colour additives are well supported by the literature.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8786

8. Antibacterial Potential and Phytochemical Analysis of Barleria lupulina Lindl. (Aerial Parts) Extracts Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
Ajeet Singh, Navneet
The antibacterial and phytochemical investigation of Barleria lupulina Lindl. aerial parts extracts were examined against common respiratory tract pathogens i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae (MTCC 655), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 1144), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2474), Streptococcus pyogens (MTCC 442), Haemophillus influenzae (MTCC 3826). The plant material was extracted with solvents i.e., petroleum ether (PET), acetone (ACE), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (H2O) with increasing polarity by Soxhlet apparatus and removed the solvent using vacuum evaporator at 30˚C. Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) were examined by Agar well diffusion two fold serial dilution method respectively. The maximum inhibition zone was found against S. aureus (17.34±0.78 mm) of methanol extract and minimum against S. pyogens (9.44±0.32 mm). MICs were observed for MeOH extract between 3.12 to 12.5 mg/mL against S. pneumoniae and S. pyogens respectively. Phytochemical examination of plant extracts showed the occurrence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, resins and phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of plant represents a significant outcome for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8787

9. Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Capecitabine Tablet for Colon Specific Drug Delivery System
Hussain Mobarak, Das Biswajit, Chakraborty Jashabir
Aim: The present research is focused on development and optimization of colon specific, fast disintegrating Capecitabine tablet for the treatment of Colon cancer. Methods: Colon targeted core tablet of Capecitabine was prepared by using CCS (Croscarmellose sodium) as a super disintegrating agent by direct compression method and coating was done over the core tablets by using pectin in different ratios by compression coating method. The colon targeted coating was done on the compression coated tablets by using ES100 and CAP (Cellulose acetate phthalate) in different ratios by dip coating method. In vitro swelling studies were carried out at different pH (1.2, 6.8 and 7.4). The Design Expert software (v.10) was used to optimise the best formulation and an in vitro cumulative percentage of drug release in different dissolution media (pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4) with respect to the time interval (2hr, 7hr and 9hr) as dependable variable. Results: Optimized formulation of Capecitabine tablet shows satisfactory result with respect to all pre and post compression test parameters and it was significantly stable during stability studies conducted for 30& 60 days. Conclusion: From the above research it was found that, the optimised formulation of less half-life period anticancer drug Capecitabine can be properly targeted to colon area with the help of pectin and eudragit S 100.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8788

10. Follow Up Evaluation of Pediatric Epileptic Patients: A Prospective Clinical Study
Ahmad Khan, Anam Khan, Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman, Sumaya Hanif, Naba Manzoor Sahi, Maria Zafar, Jallat Khan, Fahad Saleem
Objective: To investigate the follow up evaluation of pediatric epileptic patients and to determine the problems in epilepsy treatment that need improvement. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Neurology Department at Children Hospital Lahore. A Pharmaceutical Care Plan was developed which included Subjective information, Objective information, Assessment and Plan of the condition of patient followed by definitive plan for assessment of adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions and pharmacoecnomics. 100 patients having age ≤ 15 years with uncomplicated epileptic seizures were followed for seven months. Data was analyzed by routine statistical methods. Results: Commonly encountered cases were tonic clonic 39%, myoclonic 12%, petitmal 11% and complex partial seizures 9%. Results show that most commonly prescribed drug was Valproic acid used in 67% cases. Patients stable on monotherapy were 57 %. Patients with appropriate dose were 89%. Generic prescribing was done in 10% cases. Patient who received antibiotics and multivitamins were 19% and 21% respectively. Adverse drug reactions were observed in 13% cases. The patients with poor education, medium education and good education were 7.9, 63 and 28.6 percent respectively. Compliance was satisfactory in 72% patients. Patients with well-controlled fits were 25%. Mean cost of treatment for one month at start and end study was Rs. 576 ± Rs. 345 and Rs. 716 ± Rs. 422 respectively. Various wrong views about epilepsy are common in our society like patients who consider it due to evil spirits were 36%, and 24% of these patients in the start of disease strictly take a treatment from faith holders for the cure of disease. Conclusion: There is a great need for the education of our society about epilepsy and its proper treatment. The discrepancies observed in the treatment of epilepsy were due to absence of pharmacist in our health care system. If pharmacist checks all the prescriptions, maintains pharmaceutical care plan of all the patients under SOAP format and implements guidelines of Standard Pharmaceutical Care Plan, the quality of life of epileptic patients can be improved. Likewise, cost of the treatment can be reduced.

doi number =10.25258/ijpcr.v9i7.8789